Observing tutorial dialogues collaboratively

Insights about human tutoring effectiveness from vicarious learning

Michelene Chi, Marguerite Roy, Robert G M Hausmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

143 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The goals of this study are to evaluate a relatively novel learning environment, as well as to seek greater understanding of why human tutoring is so effective. This alternative learning environment consists of pairs of students collaboratively observing a videotape of another student being tutored. Comparing this collaboratively observing environment to four other instructional methods - one-on-one human tutoring, observing tutoring individually, collaborating without observing, and studying alone - the results showed that students learned to solve physics problems just as effectively from observing tutoring collaboratively as the tutees who were being tutored individually. We explain the effectiveness of this learning environment by postulating that such a situation encourages learners to become active and constructive observers through interactions with a peer. In essence, collaboratively observing combines the benefit of tutoring with the benefit of collaborating. The learning outcomes of the tutees and the collaborative observers, along with the tutoring dialogues, were used to further evaluate three hypotheses explaining why human tutoring is an effective learning method. Detailed analyses of the protocols at several grain sizes suggest that tutoring is effective when tutees are independently or jointly constructing knowledge: with the tutor, but not when the tutor independently conveys knowledge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)301-341
Number of pages41
JournalCognitive Science
Volume32
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2008
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

learning environment
dialogue
Learning
Students
tutor
learning
student
learning method
agricultural product
physics
Physics
Videotape Recording
interaction
Tutoring
Tutees
Learning Environment

Keywords

  • Human tutorial dialogue
  • Learning from collaborating
  • Learning from observing
  • Learning from tutoring
  • Physics
  • Problem solving
  • Tutoring
  • Vicarious learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Linguistics and Language

Cite this

Observing tutorial dialogues collaboratively : Insights about human tutoring effectiveness from vicarious learning. / Chi, Michelene; Roy, Marguerite; Hausmann, Robert G M.

In: Cognitive Science, Vol. 32, No. 2, 03.2008, p. 301-341.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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