Observations of rock spectral classes by the Opportunity rover's Pancam on northern Cape York and on Matijevic Hill, Endeavour Crater, Mars

W. H. Farrand, James Bell, J. R. Johnson, M. S. Rice, B. L. Jolliff, R. E. Arvidson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Opportunity rover's exploration of the portion of the rim of Endeavour crater known as Cape York included examination of the sulfate-bearing Grasberg formation and the Matijevic Hill region. Multispectral visible and near-infrared (VNIR) Pancam observations were used to characterize reflectance properties of rock units. Using spectral end-member detection and classification approaches including a principal components/n-dimensional visualization, automatic sequential maximum angle convex cone method, and classification through hierarchical clustering, six main spectral classes of rock surfaces were identified: light-toned veins, Grasberg fm., the smectite-bearing Matijevic formation, the hematitic "blueberry" spherules, resistant spherules within the Matijevic fm. dubbed "newberries," and the Shoemaker formation impact breccia. Some of these could be divided into spectral subclasses. There were three types of veins: veins in the bench unit of Cape York, thinner veins in the Matijevic fm., and boxwork pattern-forming veins. The bench unit veins had higher 535 nm band depths than the other two vein subclasses and a steeper 934 to 1009 nm slope. The Grasberg fm. has VNIR spectral features that are interpreted to indicate higher fractions of red hematite than in the sulfate-bearing Burns Fm. The Matijevic fm. includes both light-toned, fine-grained matrix, and dark-toned veneers. The latter has a weak near-infrared absorption band centered near 950 nm consistent with nontronite. Observations of Rock Abrasion Tool brushed and ground newberries indicated that cuttings from the RAT grind had a longer wavelength reflectance maximum and deeper 535 nm band depth, consistent with more oxidized materials. Greater oxidation of cementing materials in the newberries is consistent with a diagenetic concretion origin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2349-2369
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research E: Planets
Volume119
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Mars craters
Bearings (structural)
veins
crater
Mars
near infrared
spherule
Rocks
rocks
Sulfates
reflectance
rock
sulfate
Infrared radiation
nontronite
Veneers
spherules
concretion
Infrared absorption
abrasion

Keywords

  • Mars
  • remote sensing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Observations of rock spectral classes by the Opportunity rover's Pancam on northern Cape York and on Matijevic Hill, Endeavour Crater, Mars. / Farrand, W. H.; Bell, James; Johnson, J. R.; Rice, M. S.; Jolliff, B. L.; Arvidson, R. E.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, Vol. 119, No. 11, 2014, p. 2349-2369.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Farrand, W. H. ; Bell, James ; Johnson, J. R. ; Rice, M. S. ; Jolliff, B. L. ; Arvidson, R. E. / Observations of rock spectral classes by the Opportunity rover's Pancam on northern Cape York and on Matijevic Hill, Endeavour Crater, Mars. In: Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets. 2014 ; Vol. 119, No. 11. pp. 2349-2369.
@article{5a37ae4e216a41848daca862d001a0ad,
title = "Observations of rock spectral classes by the Opportunity rover's Pancam on northern Cape York and on Matijevic Hill, Endeavour Crater, Mars",
abstract = "The Opportunity rover's exploration of the portion of the rim of Endeavour crater known as Cape York included examination of the sulfate-bearing Grasberg formation and the Matijevic Hill region. Multispectral visible and near-infrared (VNIR) Pancam observations were used to characterize reflectance properties of rock units. Using spectral end-member detection and classification approaches including a principal components/n-dimensional visualization, automatic sequential maximum angle convex cone method, and classification through hierarchical clustering, six main spectral classes of rock surfaces were identified: light-toned veins, Grasberg fm., the smectite-bearing Matijevic formation, the hematitic {"}blueberry{"} spherules, resistant spherules within the Matijevic fm. dubbed {"}newberries,{"} and the Shoemaker formation impact breccia. Some of these could be divided into spectral subclasses. There were three types of veins: veins in the bench unit of Cape York, thinner veins in the Matijevic fm., and boxwork pattern-forming veins. The bench unit veins had higher 535 nm band depths than the other two vein subclasses and a steeper 934 to 1009 nm slope. The Grasberg fm. has VNIR spectral features that are interpreted to indicate higher fractions of red hematite than in the sulfate-bearing Burns Fm. The Matijevic fm. includes both light-toned, fine-grained matrix, and dark-toned veneers. The latter has a weak near-infrared absorption band centered near 950 nm consistent with nontronite. Observations of Rock Abrasion Tool brushed and ground newberries indicated that cuttings from the RAT grind had a longer wavelength reflectance maximum and deeper 535 nm band depth, consistent with more oxidized materials. Greater oxidation of cementing materials in the newberries is consistent with a diagenetic concretion origin.",
keywords = "Mars, remote sensing",
author = "Farrand, {W. H.} and James Bell and Johnson, {J. R.} and Rice, {M. S.} and Jolliff, {B. L.} and Arvidson, {R. E.}",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1002/2014JE004641",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "119",
pages = "2349--2369",
journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres",
issn = "2169-897X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Observations of rock spectral classes by the Opportunity rover's Pancam on northern Cape York and on Matijevic Hill, Endeavour Crater, Mars

AU - Farrand, W. H.

AU - Bell, James

AU - Johnson, J. R.

AU - Rice, M. S.

AU - Jolliff, B. L.

AU - Arvidson, R. E.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - The Opportunity rover's exploration of the portion of the rim of Endeavour crater known as Cape York included examination of the sulfate-bearing Grasberg formation and the Matijevic Hill region. Multispectral visible and near-infrared (VNIR) Pancam observations were used to characterize reflectance properties of rock units. Using spectral end-member detection and classification approaches including a principal components/n-dimensional visualization, automatic sequential maximum angle convex cone method, and classification through hierarchical clustering, six main spectral classes of rock surfaces were identified: light-toned veins, Grasberg fm., the smectite-bearing Matijevic formation, the hematitic "blueberry" spherules, resistant spherules within the Matijevic fm. dubbed "newberries," and the Shoemaker formation impact breccia. Some of these could be divided into spectral subclasses. There were three types of veins: veins in the bench unit of Cape York, thinner veins in the Matijevic fm., and boxwork pattern-forming veins. The bench unit veins had higher 535 nm band depths than the other two vein subclasses and a steeper 934 to 1009 nm slope. The Grasberg fm. has VNIR spectral features that are interpreted to indicate higher fractions of red hematite than in the sulfate-bearing Burns Fm. The Matijevic fm. includes both light-toned, fine-grained matrix, and dark-toned veneers. The latter has a weak near-infrared absorption band centered near 950 nm consistent with nontronite. Observations of Rock Abrasion Tool brushed and ground newberries indicated that cuttings from the RAT grind had a longer wavelength reflectance maximum and deeper 535 nm band depth, consistent with more oxidized materials. Greater oxidation of cementing materials in the newberries is consistent with a diagenetic concretion origin.

AB - The Opportunity rover's exploration of the portion of the rim of Endeavour crater known as Cape York included examination of the sulfate-bearing Grasberg formation and the Matijevic Hill region. Multispectral visible and near-infrared (VNIR) Pancam observations were used to characterize reflectance properties of rock units. Using spectral end-member detection and classification approaches including a principal components/n-dimensional visualization, automatic sequential maximum angle convex cone method, and classification through hierarchical clustering, six main spectral classes of rock surfaces were identified: light-toned veins, Grasberg fm., the smectite-bearing Matijevic formation, the hematitic "blueberry" spherules, resistant spherules within the Matijevic fm. dubbed "newberries," and the Shoemaker formation impact breccia. Some of these could be divided into spectral subclasses. There were three types of veins: veins in the bench unit of Cape York, thinner veins in the Matijevic fm., and boxwork pattern-forming veins. The bench unit veins had higher 535 nm band depths than the other two vein subclasses and a steeper 934 to 1009 nm slope. The Grasberg fm. has VNIR spectral features that are interpreted to indicate higher fractions of red hematite than in the sulfate-bearing Burns Fm. The Matijevic fm. includes both light-toned, fine-grained matrix, and dark-toned veneers. The latter has a weak near-infrared absorption band centered near 950 nm consistent with nontronite. Observations of Rock Abrasion Tool brushed and ground newberries indicated that cuttings from the RAT grind had a longer wavelength reflectance maximum and deeper 535 nm band depth, consistent with more oxidized materials. Greater oxidation of cementing materials in the newberries is consistent with a diagenetic concretion origin.

KW - Mars

KW - remote sensing

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84917693031&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84917693031&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/2014JE004641

DO - 10.1002/2014JE004641

M3 - Article

VL - 119

SP - 2349

EP - 2369

JO - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

JF - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

SN - 2169-897X

IS - 11

ER -