Observation of the graphite surface by reflection electron microscopy during STM operation

John Spence, W. Lo, M. Kuwabara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The basal plane of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) has been studied by reflection electron microscopy (REM) before, during, and after tunnelling with a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). The STM was designed to replace the standard specimen holder of a commercially available transmission electron microscope (TEM). Three types of contrast are found to be causally linked to tunnelling: (1) A dark feature which follows the tip during scanning; we attribute this to reversible elastic shear strain due to repulsion between the surface and tip. This extends over tens of nanometers. (2) A permanent bright region which forms under the tunnelling tip with repeated scanning; we attribute this to the increase in RHEED reflectivity which results from cleaning of the surface by abrasion and/or oxidation, possibly catalysed by the W tip. WO3 particles from the tip may play a role in the oxidation reaction at the surface, as observed in independent HREM studies. (3) A permanent bright band of contrast extending beyond the tunnelling tip; further study of this defect is required.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-82
Number of pages14
JournalUltramicroscopy
Volume33
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 1990

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Graphite
Scanning tunneling microscopy
scanning tunneling microscopy
Microscopes
graphite
microscopes
Scanning
Scanning electron microscopy
scanning electron microscopy
scanning
Oxidation
Reflection high energy electron diffraction
High resolution electron microscopy
Shear strain
Abrasion
Electron microscopy
Cleaning
oxidation
Electron microscopes
shear strain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation

Cite this

Observation of the graphite surface by reflection electron microscopy during STM operation. / Spence, John; Lo, W.; Kuwabara, M.

In: Ultramicroscopy, Vol. 33, No. 2, 1990, p. 69-82.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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