Nutrient intake by ultramarathon runners: Can they meet recommendations?

Floris Wardenaar, Rianne Dijkhuizen, Ingrid J.M. Ceelen, Emma Jonk, Jeanne H.M. De Vries, Renger F. Witkamp, Marco Mensink

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether ultramarathon runners were able to meet nutrition recommendations during a training period and on a competition day. Methods: In preparation for a 60 or 120 km ultramarathon covering a varied terrain, male and female ultramarathon runners (n = 68, age 46.5 ± 7.1 y) reported habitual dietary intake during three independent days using a web-based 24-hr recall and questionnaires. The diet was assessed using probability of inadequacy or by qualitative evaluation using reference dietary intakes or sports nutrition recommendations. A small group of 120 km runners (n = 4) was observed continuously during the race. After the race, 60 km runners (n = 41) received a questionnaire to assess dietary intake and gastrointestinal (GI) distress on the race day. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) were applied to investigate the association between intake and general GI distress symptoms. Results: In men and women, habitual mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was lower than recommended, as was mean protein intake by women. CHO intake during the race was <60 g/h in 75% of the athletes. A large variation of nutrient and fluid intake was seen. GI distress during the race was reported in 82% of the runners; severe GI distress was low. In general, moderate, mostly negative, correlations with nutrient intake were seen for GI distress. Conclusion: Sports nutrition recommendations for the habitual diet were not achieved. During a competition day, a large variation was found in nutrient intake; this may be related to a high incidence of GI distress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)375-386
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Volume25
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Food
Sports
Diet
Recommended Dietary Allowances
Nonparametric Statistics
Athletes
Carbohydrates
Incidence
Proteins
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • Dietary survey
  • Sports nutrition
  • Ultramarathon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Nutrient intake by ultramarathon runners : Can they meet recommendations? / Wardenaar, Floris; Dijkhuizen, Rianne; Ceelen, Ingrid J.M.; Jonk, Emma; De Vries, Jeanne H.M.; Witkamp, Renger F.; Mensink, Marco.

In: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, Vol. 25, No. 4, 01.01.2015, p. 375-386.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wardenaar, Floris ; Dijkhuizen, Rianne ; Ceelen, Ingrid J.M. ; Jonk, Emma ; De Vries, Jeanne H.M. ; Witkamp, Renger F. ; Mensink, Marco. / Nutrient intake by ultramarathon runners : Can they meet recommendations?. In: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2015 ; Vol. 25, No. 4. pp. 375-386.
@article{9568d498b96246bcb9141b6b29bcdc34,
title = "Nutrient intake by ultramarathon runners: Can they meet recommendations?",
abstract = "Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether ultramarathon runners were able to meet nutrition recommendations during a training period and on a competition day. Methods: In preparation for a 60 or 120 km ultramarathon covering a varied terrain, male and female ultramarathon runners (n = 68, age 46.5 ± 7.1 y) reported habitual dietary intake during three independent days using a web-based 24-hr recall and questionnaires. The diet was assessed using probability of inadequacy or by qualitative evaluation using reference dietary intakes or sports nutrition recommendations. A small group of 120 km runners (n = 4) was observed continuously during the race. After the race, 60 km runners (n = 41) received a questionnaire to assess dietary intake and gastrointestinal (GI) distress on the race day. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) were applied to investigate the association between intake and general GI distress symptoms. Results: In men and women, habitual mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was lower than recommended, as was mean protein intake by women. CHO intake during the race was <60 g/h in 75{\%} of the athletes. A large variation of nutrient and fluid intake was seen. GI distress during the race was reported in 82{\%} of the runners; severe GI distress was low. In general, moderate, mostly negative, correlations with nutrient intake were seen for GI distress. Conclusion: Sports nutrition recommendations for the habitual diet were not achieved. During a competition day, a large variation was found in nutrient intake; this may be related to a high incidence of GI distress.",
keywords = "Dietary survey, Sports nutrition, Ultramarathon",
author = "Floris Wardenaar and Rianne Dijkhuizen and Ceelen, {Ingrid J.M.} and Emma Jonk and {De Vries}, {Jeanne H.M.} and Witkamp, {Renger F.} and Marco Mensink",
year = "2015",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0199",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "25",
pages = "375--386",
journal = "International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism",
issn = "1526-484X",
publisher = "Human Kinetics Publishers Inc.",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nutrient intake by ultramarathon runners

T2 - Can they meet recommendations?

AU - Wardenaar, Floris

AU - Dijkhuizen, Rianne

AU - Ceelen, Ingrid J.M.

AU - Jonk, Emma

AU - De Vries, Jeanne H.M.

AU - Witkamp, Renger F.

AU - Mensink, Marco

PY - 2015/1/1

Y1 - 2015/1/1

N2 - Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether ultramarathon runners were able to meet nutrition recommendations during a training period and on a competition day. Methods: In preparation for a 60 or 120 km ultramarathon covering a varied terrain, male and female ultramarathon runners (n = 68, age 46.5 ± 7.1 y) reported habitual dietary intake during three independent days using a web-based 24-hr recall and questionnaires. The diet was assessed using probability of inadequacy or by qualitative evaluation using reference dietary intakes or sports nutrition recommendations. A small group of 120 km runners (n = 4) was observed continuously during the race. After the race, 60 km runners (n = 41) received a questionnaire to assess dietary intake and gastrointestinal (GI) distress on the race day. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) were applied to investigate the association between intake and general GI distress symptoms. Results: In men and women, habitual mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was lower than recommended, as was mean protein intake by women. CHO intake during the race was <60 g/h in 75% of the athletes. A large variation of nutrient and fluid intake was seen. GI distress during the race was reported in 82% of the runners; severe GI distress was low. In general, moderate, mostly negative, correlations with nutrient intake were seen for GI distress. Conclusion: Sports nutrition recommendations for the habitual diet were not achieved. During a competition day, a large variation was found in nutrient intake; this may be related to a high incidence of GI distress.

AB - Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether ultramarathon runners were able to meet nutrition recommendations during a training period and on a competition day. Methods: In preparation for a 60 or 120 km ultramarathon covering a varied terrain, male and female ultramarathon runners (n = 68, age 46.5 ± 7.1 y) reported habitual dietary intake during three independent days using a web-based 24-hr recall and questionnaires. The diet was assessed using probability of inadequacy or by qualitative evaluation using reference dietary intakes or sports nutrition recommendations. A small group of 120 km runners (n = 4) was observed continuously during the race. After the race, 60 km runners (n = 41) received a questionnaire to assess dietary intake and gastrointestinal (GI) distress on the race day. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) were applied to investigate the association between intake and general GI distress symptoms. Results: In men and women, habitual mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was lower than recommended, as was mean protein intake by women. CHO intake during the race was <60 g/h in 75% of the athletes. A large variation of nutrient and fluid intake was seen. GI distress during the race was reported in 82% of the runners; severe GI distress was low. In general, moderate, mostly negative, correlations with nutrient intake were seen for GI distress. Conclusion: Sports nutrition recommendations for the habitual diet were not achieved. During a competition day, a large variation was found in nutrient intake; this may be related to a high incidence of GI distress.

KW - Dietary survey

KW - Sports nutrition

KW - Ultramarathon

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84944041585&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84944041585&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0199

DO - 10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0199

M3 - Article

C2 - 25811196

AN - SCOPUS:84944041585

VL - 25

SP - 375

EP - 386

JO - International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism

JF - International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism

SN - 1526-484X

IS - 4

ER -