Novel aspects of graphite intercalation by fluorine and fluorides and new B/C, C/N and B/C/N materials based on the graphite network

John Kouvetakis, T. Sasaki, C. Shen, R. Hagiwara, M. Lerner, K. M. Krishnan, Neil Bartlett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

184 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Materials of composition BC3, C5N and BC2N have been prepared by reactions which are driven by favorable TΔS values associated with HC1 elimination. X-Ray and electron diffraction, electron microscopy, EELS and Auger spectroscopy all establish that these materials have their atoms in graphite-like networks. BC3 is a semi-metal, and BC2N is a small bandgap semiconductor. C5N is best formed at 680°C and is characterized by an interlayer spacing of 3.52 Å. At higher reaction temperatures (CN)2 is lost and at 980°C the composition is ∼ C14N and the average interlayer spacing is 3.43 Å. The C/N material becomes more graphite-like dimensionally and the electrical conductivity increases towards that of graphite as the nitrogen content falls. These observations suggest that the N atoms may not be in the same plane as the C atoms. Each of the B/C, C/N and B/C/N materials has a unique intercalation chemistry, which will be compared with that of graphite. The graphite network is also preserved in graphite fluorinated by F- carriers at ∼ 20°C. A remarkably inert material of composition C1.3F and its CXF relatives (in which the sp2 carbon of graphite is preserved) will be described. At composition C1.3F the interlayer spacing is 6.4 Å but the graphite-like ao parameter (ao = 2.478 Å) is only slightly larger than that in graphite itself, therefore most F atoms in C1.3F must have F atom neighbors at only 2.48 Å.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalSynthetic Metals
Volume34
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1989
Externally publishedYes

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Graphite
Fluorine
Intercalation
Fluorides
intercalation
fluorine
fluorides
graphite
Atoms
interlayers
atoms
spacing
Chemical analysis
Metalloids
Electron energy loss spectroscopy
Electron diffraction
spectroscopy
Electron microscopy
Auger spectroscopy
elimination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics

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Novel aspects of graphite intercalation by fluorine and fluorides and new B/C, C/N and B/C/N materials based on the graphite network. / Kouvetakis, John; Sasaki, T.; Shen, C.; Hagiwara, R.; Lerner, M.; Krishnan, K. M.; Bartlett, Neil.

In: Synthetic Metals, Vol. 34, No. 1-3, 1989, p. 1-7.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kouvetakis, John ; Sasaki, T. ; Shen, C. ; Hagiwara, R. ; Lerner, M. ; Krishnan, K. M. ; Bartlett, Neil. / Novel aspects of graphite intercalation by fluorine and fluorides and new B/C, C/N and B/C/N materials based on the graphite network. In: Synthetic Metals. 1989 ; Vol. 34, No. 1-3. pp. 1-7.
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abstract = "Materials of composition BC3, C5N and BC2N have been prepared by reactions which are driven by favorable TΔS values associated with HC1 elimination. X-Ray and electron diffraction, electron microscopy, EELS and Auger spectroscopy all establish that these materials have their atoms in graphite-like networks. BC3 is a semi-metal, and BC2N is a small bandgap semiconductor. C5N is best formed at 680°C and is characterized by an interlayer spacing of 3.52 {\AA}. At higher reaction temperatures (CN)2 is lost and at 980°C the composition is ∼ C14N and the average interlayer spacing is 3.43 {\AA}. The C/N material becomes more graphite-like dimensionally and the electrical conductivity increases towards that of graphite as the nitrogen content falls. These observations suggest that the N atoms may not be in the same plane as the C atoms. Each of the B/C, C/N and B/C/N materials has a unique intercalation chemistry, which will be compared with that of graphite. The graphite network is also preserved in graphite fluorinated by F- carriers at ∼ 20°C. A remarkably inert material of composition C1.3F and its CXF relatives (in which the sp2 carbon of graphite is preserved) will be described. At composition C1.3F the interlayer spacing is 6.4 {\AA} but the graphite-like ao parameter (ao = 2.478 {\AA}) is only slightly larger than that in graphite itself, therefore most F atoms in C1.3F must have F atom neighbors at only 2.48 {\AA}.",
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