Nonoccupational physical activity by degree of urbanization and U.S. geographic region

Jared P. Reis, Heather R. Bowles, Barbara Ainsworth, Katrina D. Dubose, Sharon Smith, James N. Laditka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

76 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: To estimate levels of nonoccupational leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) by degree of urbanization and geographic region of the United States. Methods: Participants were respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2001 (N = 137,359). Moderate- and vigorous-intensity LTPA was categorized as meeting recommended levels, insufficient, or inactive. The U.S. Department of Agriculture rural-urban continuum codes were used to describe degrees of urbanization (metro, large urban, small urban, and rural). Geographic regions were defined by the U.S. Bureau of the Census (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). Prevalence estimates were calculated using sample weights to account for the design of the BRFSS. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined regional differences in the odds of physical inactivity (physically inactive vs insufficient or meets) by degree of urbanization after adjustment for sex, age, race, BMI, education, and occupational physical activity. Results: Large urban areas (49.0%) and the western United States (49.0%) had the highest prevalence of recommended levels of LTPA. Rural areas (24.1%) and the southern United States (17.4%) had the highest prevalence of inactivity. Adults living in the four urbanization categories of the midwestern (metro (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.31, 1.65), large urban (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.51, 2.23), small urban (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.65, 2.40), and rural (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.35, 4.97)); and southern (metro (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.53, 1.88), large urban (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.72, 2.41), small urban (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 2.02, 2.67), and rural (OR = 5.49, 95% CI = 2.82, 10.68)) U.S. regions were more likely to be inactive than adults living in similar areas of the western United States. Adults in northeast metro and large urban areas (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.45, 1.81; and OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.74, respectively) were more likely to be inactive than those residing in western metro and large urban areas. Conclusion: The prevalence of physical inactivity varies by degree of urbanization and geographic region of the United States.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2093-2098
Number of pages6
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume36
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2004
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Urbanization
Exercise
Leisure Activities
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
United States Department of Agriculture
Censuses
Logistic Models
Regression Analysis
Education
Weights and Measures

Keywords

  • Environment
  • Epidemiology
  • Rural
  • Surveillance
  • Urban

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Cite this

Nonoccupational physical activity by degree of urbanization and U.S. geographic region. / Reis, Jared P.; Bowles, Heather R.; Ainsworth, Barbara; Dubose, Katrina D.; Smith, Sharon; Laditka, James N.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 36, No. 12, 12.2004, p. 2093-2098.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reis, Jared P. ; Bowles, Heather R. ; Ainsworth, Barbara ; Dubose, Katrina D. ; Smith, Sharon ; Laditka, James N. / Nonoccupational physical activity by degree of urbanization and U.S. geographic region. In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2004 ; Vol. 36, No. 12. pp. 2093-2098.
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title = "Nonoccupational physical activity by degree of urbanization and U.S. geographic region",
abstract = "Purpose: To estimate levels of nonoccupational leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) by degree of urbanization and geographic region of the United States. Methods: Participants were respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2001 (N = 137,359). Moderate- and vigorous-intensity LTPA was categorized as meeting recommended levels, insufficient, or inactive. The U.S. Department of Agriculture rural-urban continuum codes were used to describe degrees of urbanization (metro, large urban, small urban, and rural). Geographic regions were defined by the U.S. Bureau of the Census (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). Prevalence estimates were calculated using sample weights to account for the design of the BRFSS. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined regional differences in the odds of physical inactivity (physically inactive vs insufficient or meets) by degree of urbanization after adjustment for sex, age, race, BMI, education, and occupational physical activity. Results: Large urban areas (49.0{\%}) and the western United States (49.0{\%}) had the highest prevalence of recommended levels of LTPA. Rural areas (24.1{\%}) and the southern United States (17.4{\%}) had the highest prevalence of inactivity. Adults living in the four urbanization categories of the midwestern (metro (OR = 1.47, 95{\%} CI = 1.31, 1.65), large urban (OR = 1.83, 95{\%} CI = 1.51, 2.23), small urban (OR = 1.99, 95{\%} CI = 1.65, 2.40), and rural (OR = 2.59, 95{\%} CI = 1.35, 4.97)); and southern (metro (OR = 1.70, 95{\%} CI = 1.53, 1.88), large urban (OR = 2.04, 95{\%} CI = 1.72, 2.41), small urban (OR = 2.32, 95{\%} CI = 2.02, 2.67), and rural (OR = 5.49, 95{\%} CI = 2.82, 10.68)) U.S. regions were more likely to be inactive than adults living in similar areas of the western United States. Adults in northeast metro and large urban areas (OR = 1.62, 95{\%} CI = 1.45, 1.81; and OR = 1.37, 95{\%} CI = 1.08, 1.74, respectively) were more likely to be inactive than those residing in western metro and large urban areas. Conclusion: The prevalence of physical inactivity varies by degree of urbanization and geographic region of the United States.",
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T1 - Nonoccupational physical activity by degree of urbanization and U.S. geographic region

AU - Reis, Jared P.

AU - Bowles, Heather R.

AU - Ainsworth, Barbara

AU - Dubose, Katrina D.

AU - Smith, Sharon

AU - Laditka, James N.

PY - 2004/12

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N2 - Purpose: To estimate levels of nonoccupational leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) by degree of urbanization and geographic region of the United States. Methods: Participants were respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2001 (N = 137,359). Moderate- and vigorous-intensity LTPA was categorized as meeting recommended levels, insufficient, or inactive. The U.S. Department of Agriculture rural-urban continuum codes were used to describe degrees of urbanization (metro, large urban, small urban, and rural). Geographic regions were defined by the U.S. Bureau of the Census (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). Prevalence estimates were calculated using sample weights to account for the design of the BRFSS. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined regional differences in the odds of physical inactivity (physically inactive vs insufficient or meets) by degree of urbanization after adjustment for sex, age, race, BMI, education, and occupational physical activity. Results: Large urban areas (49.0%) and the western United States (49.0%) had the highest prevalence of recommended levels of LTPA. Rural areas (24.1%) and the southern United States (17.4%) had the highest prevalence of inactivity. Adults living in the four urbanization categories of the midwestern (metro (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.31, 1.65), large urban (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.51, 2.23), small urban (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.65, 2.40), and rural (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.35, 4.97)); and southern (metro (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.53, 1.88), large urban (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.72, 2.41), small urban (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 2.02, 2.67), and rural (OR = 5.49, 95% CI = 2.82, 10.68)) U.S. regions were more likely to be inactive than adults living in similar areas of the western United States. Adults in northeast metro and large urban areas (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.45, 1.81; and OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.74, respectively) were more likely to be inactive than those residing in western metro and large urban areas. Conclusion: The prevalence of physical inactivity varies by degree of urbanization and geographic region of the United States.

AB - Purpose: To estimate levels of nonoccupational leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) by degree of urbanization and geographic region of the United States. Methods: Participants were respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2001 (N = 137,359). Moderate- and vigorous-intensity LTPA was categorized as meeting recommended levels, insufficient, or inactive. The U.S. Department of Agriculture rural-urban continuum codes were used to describe degrees of urbanization (metro, large urban, small urban, and rural). Geographic regions were defined by the U.S. Bureau of the Census (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). Prevalence estimates were calculated using sample weights to account for the design of the BRFSS. Multivariate logistic regression analyses examined regional differences in the odds of physical inactivity (physically inactive vs insufficient or meets) by degree of urbanization after adjustment for sex, age, race, BMI, education, and occupational physical activity. Results: Large urban areas (49.0%) and the western United States (49.0%) had the highest prevalence of recommended levels of LTPA. Rural areas (24.1%) and the southern United States (17.4%) had the highest prevalence of inactivity. Adults living in the four urbanization categories of the midwestern (metro (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.31, 1.65), large urban (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.51, 2.23), small urban (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.65, 2.40), and rural (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.35, 4.97)); and southern (metro (OR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.53, 1.88), large urban (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.72, 2.41), small urban (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 2.02, 2.67), and rural (OR = 5.49, 95% CI = 2.82, 10.68)) U.S. regions were more likely to be inactive than adults living in similar areas of the western United States. Adults in northeast metro and large urban areas (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.45, 1.81; and OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.74, respectively) were more likely to be inactive than those residing in western metro and large urban areas. Conclusion: The prevalence of physical inactivity varies by degree of urbanization and geographic region of the United States.

KW - Environment

KW - Epidemiology

KW - Rural

KW - Surveillance

KW - Urban

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