No effect of 5% hypohydration on running economy of competitive runners at 23°C

Lawrence E. Armstrong, Michael J. Whittlesey, Douglas J. Casa, Tabatha A. Elliott, Stavros A. Kavouras, Nicole R. Keith, Carl M. Maresh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Although running economy (RE) is recognized as an integral component of successful endurance performance and is affected by numerous factors, little is known about the influence of body water loss on RE. This investigation examined the effects of hypohydration (HY) on RE and associated physiological responses. Methods: Ten highly trained collegiate distance runners (mean ± SD; age, 20 ± 3 yr; height, 178.5 ± 6.3 cm; body mass, 66.7 ± 5.4 kg; V̇O2max, 66.5 ± 4.1 mL·kg-1·min-1) participated in four experiments on separate days, twice in a euhydrated (EU) and twice in a HY state (-5.5 and -5.7% body mass loss achieved during 24 h). At each hydration level, subjects performed one 10-min treadmill run per day (23°C environment), at either 70% V̇O2max (EU 70% or HY 70%) or 85% V̇O 2max (EU 85% or HY 85%) in a randomized, repeated-measures design. Cardiopulmonary, metabolic, thermal, hormonal, and perceptual variables were measured. Results: No between-treatment differences existed for RE (EU 70%, 46.3 ± 3.2; HY 70%, 47.2 ± 3.8; EU 85%, 58.6 ± 2.8; HY 85%, 58.9 ± 4.1 mL·kg-1·min-1), postexercise plasma lactate concentration (EU 70%, 1.9 ± 0.6; HY 70%, 1.8 ± 0.6; EU 85%, 6.5 ± 3.5; HY 85%, 6.4 ± 3.5 mmol·L-1), or rating of perceived exertion. HY resulted in a greater (P < 0.05 to 0.001) heart rate (HR), rectal temperature, and plasma norepinephrine concentration (NE), concurrent with reduced cardiac output, stroke volume, and respiratory exchange ratio. Conclusion: HY did not alter the RE or lactate accumulation of endurance athletes during 10 min of exercise at 70 and 85% V̇O2max. These findings indicate that HY had no effect on RE, but that it increased physiological strain in a 23°C environment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1762-1769
Number of pages8
JournalMedicine and science in sports and exercise
Volume38
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Lactic Acid
Body Water
Athletes
Cardiac Output
Stroke Volume
Norepinephrine
Hot Temperature
Heart Rate
Exercise
Temperature
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Heart rate
  • Lactate
  • Metabolism
  • Norepinephrine
  • Oxygen
  • Rectal temperature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Cite this

Armstrong, L. E., Whittlesey, M. J., Casa, D. J., Elliott, T. A., Kavouras, S. A., Keith, N. R., & Maresh, C. M. (2006). No effect of 5% hypohydration on running economy of competitive runners at 23°C. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(10), 1762-1769. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000230123.68394.ff

No effect of 5% hypohydration on running economy of competitive runners at 23°C. / Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Whittlesey, Michael J.; Casa, Douglas J.; Elliott, Tabatha A.; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Keith, Nicole R.; Maresh, Carl M.

In: Medicine and science in sports and exercise, Vol. 38, No. 10, 01.10.2006, p. 1762-1769.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Armstrong, Lawrence E. ; Whittlesey, Michael J. ; Casa, Douglas J. ; Elliott, Tabatha A. ; Kavouras, Stavros A. ; Keith, Nicole R. ; Maresh, Carl M. / No effect of 5% hypohydration on running economy of competitive runners at 23°C. In: Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2006 ; Vol. 38, No. 10. pp. 1762-1769.
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abstract = "Purpose: Although running economy (RE) is recognized as an integral component of successful endurance performance and is affected by numerous factors, little is known about the influence of body water loss on RE. This investigation examined the effects of hypohydration (HY) on RE and associated physiological responses. Methods: Ten highly trained collegiate distance runners (mean ± SD; age, 20 ± 3 yr; height, 178.5 ± 6.3 cm; body mass, 66.7 ± 5.4 kg; V̇O2max, 66.5 ± 4.1 mL·kg-1·min-1) participated in four experiments on separate days, twice in a euhydrated (EU) and twice in a HY state (-5.5 and -5.7{\%} body mass loss achieved during 24 h). At each hydration level, subjects performed one 10-min treadmill run per day (23°C environment), at either 70{\%} V̇O2max (EU 70{\%} or HY 70{\%}) or 85{\%} V̇O 2max (EU 85{\%} or HY 85{\%}) in a randomized, repeated-measures design. Cardiopulmonary, metabolic, thermal, hormonal, and perceptual variables were measured. Results: No between-treatment differences existed for RE (EU 70{\%}, 46.3 ± 3.2; HY 70{\%}, 47.2 ± 3.8; EU 85{\%}, 58.6 ± 2.8; HY 85{\%}, 58.9 ± 4.1 mL·kg-1·min-1), postexercise plasma lactate concentration (EU 70{\%}, 1.9 ± 0.6; HY 70{\%}, 1.8 ± 0.6; EU 85{\%}, 6.5 ± 3.5; HY 85{\%}, 6.4 ± 3.5 mmol·L-1), or rating of perceived exertion. HY resulted in a greater (P < 0.05 to 0.001) heart rate (HR), rectal temperature, and plasma norepinephrine concentration (NE), concurrent with reduced cardiac output, stroke volume, and respiratory exchange ratio. Conclusion: HY did not alter the RE or lactate accumulation of endurance athletes during 10 min of exercise at 70 and 85{\%} V̇O2max. These findings indicate that HY had no effect on RE, but that it increased physiological strain in a 23°C environment.",
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AU - Keith, Nicole R.

AU - Maresh, Carl M.

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KW - Oxygen

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