New directions for racial discrimination research as inspired by the integrative model

Eleanor Seaton, Gilbert C. Gee, Enrique Neblett, Lisa Spanierman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


In 1996, Cynthia García Coll and colleagues introduced a groundbreaking model that articulated factors that influenced the development of ethnic-racial minority and immigrant youth. One of the key arguments was that racial discrimination is a stratification mechanism resulting in negative developmental outcomes for minority youth, and this argument has been supported by several meta-analyses. Against the backdrop of the rise of White nationalism, increasing hate crimes against ethnic-racial minority individuals, implementation of national policies that disproportionately affect communities of color, and the shift to a majority- minority country, it is imperative for future research to refine key aspects of the integrative model that are intricately connected to these trends. The present article offers recommendations for future research in 4 areas: (1) expansion of segregation indicators to include mass incarceration and mass deportation, (2) expansion of the study of resilience factors among minority youth, (3) application of the integrative model to White youth, and (4) the development of comprehensive measures and utilization of diverse methodologies. It is imperative that future research clarify these issues to further understanding of the development of all children in the context of racial discrimination.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)768-780
Number of pages13
JournalAmerican Psychologist
Issue number6
StatePublished - Sep 2018


  • Integrative model
  • Racial discrimination
  • Resilience factors
  • Segregation
  • White youth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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