Naturalistic outcome of case formulation-driven cognitive-behavior therapy for anxious depressed outpatients

Jacqueline B. Persons, Nicole A. Roberts, Christine A. Zalecki, Whitney A.G. Brechwald

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

59 Scopus citations


This article describes a case formulation-driven approach to the treatment of anxious depressed outpatients and presents naturalistic outcome data evaluating its effectiveness. Fifty-eight patients who received case formulation-driven cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) in a private practice setting were studied. All received individual CBT guided by a case formulation and weekly outcome monitoring; in addition, 40 patients received adjunct therapies, including pharmacotherapy, which were added as indicated by the case formulation and the results of weekly outcome monitoring. Patients treated with case formulation-driven CBT showed statistically and clinically significant changes in anxiety and depression that were generally comparable to those reported in published randomized controlled trials of empirically supported therapies (ESTs) for single mood and anxiety disorders. Findings support the proposal that anxious depressed patients who have multiple comorbidities and require multiple therapies can benefit from empirically supported treatments guided by a case formulation and weekly outcome monitoring.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1041-1051
Number of pages11
JournalBehaviour Research and Therapy
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2006



  • Case formulation
  • Comorbidity
  • Effectiveness
  • Empirically-supported therapies (ESTs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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