Formulations are presented to predict the pattern of interference (multipath) between direct rays and those reflected from the surface of the earth. These formulations can be used to assess the performance of ground-to-air, air-to-ground, ground-to-ground, and air-to-air communication and antenna measuring systems. Methods are also introduced to determine accurately the point of reflection and the path phase difference between the direct and reflected waves. Various divergence factors, used to account for energy spreading from a curved surface, are presented and compared. The formulations introduced can account for any polarization state (linear, circular, elliptical), sense of rotation (right hand, left hand), and tilt angle of the transmitting and receiving elements, and for polarization changes due to reflection.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering