A six-year analysis of 12 multilingual online marketplaces focuses on underground commerce, including stolen user data, fake identities, and attacking tools and services. Migration trends, items for sale, and seller and buyer characteristics reveal commonalities among these fraudulent markets.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7478573
Pages (from-to)32-43
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Security and Privacy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2016



  • economics
  • measurement
  • security
  • underground marketplaces

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Law

Cite this

Zhao, Z., Sankaran, M., Ahn, G-J., Holt, T. J., Jing, Y., & Hu, H. (2016). Mules, Seals, and Attacking Tools: Analyzing 12 Online Marketplaces. IEEE Security and Privacy, 14(3), 32-43. [7478573]. https://doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2016.46