Cardiac catheterization is an interventional procedure that is usually carried out without the use of force sensors. During such procedures the physician mainly relies on visual feedback provided by an imaging modality, like X-ray fluoroscopy, Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Hence, the physician it is not always able to predict the forces between the catheter and blood vessel walls. Sometimes, tasks such as moving a catheter through delicate blood vessel networks and through the heart chambers become difficult. This paper provides an overview of fiber-optic pressure and force sensors for cardiac catheters with potential for providing haptic feedback. In conjunction with an MRI scanner the overall cardiac catheterization procedure could be enhanced. The paper focuses on fiber-optic sensors due to their very good MRI compatibility. Background information on manual and robotic catheterization approaches is provided together with an analytic discussion of the current state-of-the-art in fiber-optic force and pressure sensors for catheters, which can provide haptic information.
- Cardiac catheterization
- force sensor
- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- pressure sensor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering