Mountains on Io: High-resolution Galileo observations, initial interpretations, and formation models

Elizabeth P. Turtle, Windy L. Jaeger, Laszlo P. Keszthelyi, Alfred S. McEwen, Moses Milazzo, Jeff Moore, Cynthia B. Phillips, Jani Radebaugh, Damon Simonelli, Frank Chuang, Peter Schuster, D. D A Alexander, K. Capraro, S. H. Chang, A. C. Chen, J. Clark, D. L. Conner, A. Culver, T. H. Handley, D. N. JensenD. D. Knight, S. K. LaVoie, M. McAuley, V. Mego, O. Montoya, H. B. Mortensen, S. J. Noland, R. R. Patel, T. M. Pauro, C. L. Stanley, D. J. Steinwand, T. F. Thaller, P. J. Woncik, G. M. Yagi, J. R. Yoshimizu, E. M. Alvarez Del Castillo, R. Beyer, D. Branston, M. B. Fishburn, B. Muller, R. Ragan, N. Samarasinha, C. D. Anger, C. Cunningham, B. Little, S. Arriola, M. H. Carr, E. Asphaug, D. Morrison, K. Rages, D. Banfield, M. Bell, J. A. Burns, B. Carcich, B. Clark, N. Currier, I. Dauber, P. J. Gierasch, P. Helfenstein, M. Mann, O. Othman, L. Rossier, N. Solomon, R. Sullivan, P. C. Thomas, J. Veverka, T. Becker, K. Edwards, L. Gaddis, R. Kirk, E. Lee, T. Rosanova, R. M. Sucharski, R. F. Beebe, A. Simon, M. J S Belton, K. Bender, S. Fagents, P. Figueredo, R. Greeley, K. Homan, S. Kadel, J. Kerr, J. Klemaszewski, E. Lo, W. Schwarz, R. Sullivan, David Williams, K. Williams, B. Bierhaus, S. Brooks, C. R. Chapman, B. Merline, J. Keller, P. Tamblyn, A. Bouchez, U. Dyundian, A. P. Ingersoll, A. Showman, J. Spitale, S. Stewart, A. Vasavada, H. H. Breneman, W. F. Cunningham, T. V. Johnson, T. J. Jones, J. M. Kaufman, K. P. Klaasen, G. Levanas, K. P. Magee, M. K. Meredith, G. S. Orton, D. A. Senske, A. West, D. Winther, G. Collins, W. J. Fripp, J. W. Head, R. Pappalardo, S. Pratt, L. Prockter, N. Spaun, T. Colvin, M. Davies, E. M. DeJong, J. Hall, S. Suzuki, Z. Gorjian, T. Denk, B. Giese, U. Koehler, G. Neukum, J. Oberst, T. Roatsch, W. Tost, R. Wagner, N. Dieter, D. Durda, P. Geissler, R. J. Greenberg, G. Hoppa, J. Plassman, R. Tufts, F. P. Fanale, J. C. Granahan, W. H. Ip, M. McElroy, J. Yatteau, W. B. Moore, G. Schubert, C. B. Pilcher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

During three close flybys in late 1999 and early 2000 the Galileo spacecraft ac-quired new observations of the mountains that tower above Io's surface. These images have revealed surprising variety in the mountains' morphologies. They range from jagged peaks several kilometers high to lower, rounded structures. Some are very smooth, others are covered by numerous parallel ridges. Many mountains have margins that are collapsing outward in large landslides or series of slump blocks, but a few have steep, scalloped scarps. From these observations we can gain insight into the structure and material properties of Io's crust as well as into the erosional processes acting on Io. We have also investigated formation mechanisms proposed for these structures using finite-element analysis. Mountain formation might be initiated by global compression due to the high rate of global subsidence associated with Io's high resurfacing rate; however, our models demonstrate that this hypothesis lacks a mechanism for isolating the mountains. The large fraction (∼40%) of mountains that are associated with paterae suggests that in some cases these features are tectonically related. Therefore we have also simulated the stresses induced in Io's crust by a combination of a thermal upwelling in the mantle with global lithospheric compression and have shown that this can focus compressional stresses. If this mechanism is responsible for some of Io's mountains, it could also explain the common association of mountains with paterae.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2000JE001354
Pages (from-to)33175-33199
Number of pages25
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research E: Planets
Volume106
Issue numberE12
StatePublished - Dec 25 2001

Fingerprint

Io
mountains
mountain
high resolution
Subsidence
Landslides
Towers
Spacecraft
Materials properties
Finite element method
crusts
compression
Galileo spacecraft
crust
escarpments
landslides
upwelling water
subsidence
towers
formation mechanism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology

Cite this

Turtle, E. P., Jaeger, W. L., Keszthelyi, L. P., McEwen, A. S., Milazzo, M., Moore, J., ... Pilcher, C. B. (2001). Mountains on Io: High-resolution Galileo observations, initial interpretations, and formation models. Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, 106(E12), 33175-33199. [2000JE001354].

Mountains on Io : High-resolution Galileo observations, initial interpretations, and formation models. / Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Milazzo, Moses; Moore, Jeff; Phillips, Cynthia B.; Radebaugh, Jani; Simonelli, Damon; Chuang, Frank; Schuster, Peter; Alexander, D. D A; Capraro, K.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, A. C.; Clark, J.; Conner, D. L.; Culver, A.; Handley, T. H.; Jensen, D. N.; Knight, D. D.; LaVoie, S. K.; McAuley, M.; Mego, V.; Montoya, O.; Mortensen, H. B.; Noland, S. J.; Patel, R. R.; Pauro, T. M.; Stanley, C. L.; Steinwand, D. J.; Thaller, T. F.; Woncik, P. J.; Yagi, G. M.; Yoshimizu, J. R.; Alvarez Del Castillo, E. M.; Beyer, R.; Branston, D.; Fishburn, M. B.; Muller, B.; Ragan, R.; Samarasinha, N.; Anger, C. D.; Cunningham, C.; Little, B.; Arriola, S.; Carr, M. H.; Asphaug, E.; Morrison, D.; Rages, K.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Burns, J. A.; Carcich, B.; Clark, B.; Currier, N.; Dauber, I.; Gierasch, P. J.; Helfenstein, P.; Mann, M.; Othman, O.; Rossier, L.; Solomon, N.; Sullivan, R.; Thomas, P. C.; Veverka, J.; Becker, T.; Edwards, K.; Gaddis, L.; Kirk, R.; Lee, E.; Rosanova, T.; Sucharski, R. M.; Beebe, R. F.; Simon, A.; Belton, M. J S; Bender, K.; Fagents, S.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Homan, K.; Kadel, S.; Kerr, J.; Klemaszewski, J.; Lo, E.; Schwarz, W.; Sullivan, R.; Williams, David; Williams, K.; Bierhaus, B.; Brooks, S.; Chapman, C. R.; Merline, B.; Keller, J.; Tamblyn, P.; Bouchez, A.; Dyundian, U.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Showman, A.; Spitale, J.; Stewart, S.; Vasavada, A.; Breneman, H. H.; Cunningham, W. F.; Johnson, T. V.; Jones, T. J.; Kaufman, J. M.; Klaasen, K. P.; Levanas, G.; Magee, K. P.; Meredith, M. K.; Orton, G. S.; Senske, D. A.; West, A.; Winther, D.; Collins, G.; Fripp, W. J.; Head, J. W.; Pappalardo, R.; Pratt, S.; Prockter, L.; Spaun, N.; Colvin, T.; Davies, M.; DeJong, E. M.; Hall, J.; Suzuki, S.; Gorjian, Z.; Denk, T.; Giese, B.; Koehler, U.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Roatsch, T.; Tost, W.; Wagner, R.; Dieter, N.; Durda, D.; Geissler, P.; Greenberg, R. J.; Hoppa, G.; Plassman, J.; Tufts, R.; Fanale, F. P.; Granahan, J. C.; Ip, W. H.; McElroy, M.; Yatteau, J.; Moore, W. B.; Schubert, G.; Pilcher, C. B.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, Vol. 106, No. E12, 2000JE001354, 25.12.2001, p. 33175-33199.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Turtle, EP, Jaeger, WL, Keszthelyi, LP, McEwen, AS, Milazzo, M, Moore, J, Phillips, CB, Radebaugh, J, Simonelli, D, Chuang, F, Schuster, P, Alexander, DDA, Capraro, K, Chang, SH, Chen, AC, Clark, J, Conner, DL, Culver, A, Handley, TH, Jensen, DN, Knight, DD, LaVoie, SK, McAuley, M, Mego, V, Montoya, O, Mortensen, HB, Noland, SJ, Patel, RR, Pauro, TM, Stanley, CL, Steinwand, DJ, Thaller, TF, Woncik, PJ, Yagi, GM, Yoshimizu, JR, Alvarez Del Castillo, EM, Beyer, R, Branston, D, Fishburn, MB, Muller, B, Ragan, R, Samarasinha, N, Anger, CD, Cunningham, C, Little, B, Arriola, S, Carr, MH, Asphaug, E, Morrison, D, Rages, K, Banfield, D, Bell, M, Burns, JA, Carcich, B, Clark, B, Currier, N, Dauber, I, Gierasch, PJ, Helfenstein, P, Mann, M, Othman, O, Rossier, L, Solomon, N, Sullivan, R, Thomas, PC, Veverka, J, Becker, T, Edwards, K, Gaddis, L, Kirk, R, Lee, E, Rosanova, T, Sucharski, RM, Beebe, RF, Simon, A, Belton, MJS, Bender, K, Fagents, S, Figueredo, P, Greeley, R, Homan, K, Kadel, S, Kerr, J, Klemaszewski, J, Lo, E, Schwarz, W, Sullivan, R, Williams, D, Williams, K, Bierhaus, B, Brooks, S, Chapman, CR, Merline, B, Keller, J, Tamblyn, P, Bouchez, A, Dyundian, U, Ingersoll, AP, Showman, A, Spitale, J, Stewart, S, Vasavada, A, Breneman, HH, Cunningham, WF, Johnson, TV, Jones, TJ, Kaufman, JM, Klaasen, KP, Levanas, G, Magee, KP, Meredith, MK, Orton, GS, Senske, DA, West, A, Winther, D, Collins, G, Fripp, WJ, Head, JW, Pappalardo, R, Pratt, S, Prockter, L, Spaun, N, Colvin, T, Davies, M, DeJong, EM, Hall, J, Suzuki, S, Gorjian, Z, Denk, T, Giese, B, Koehler, U, Neukum, G, Oberst, J, Roatsch, T, Tost, W, Wagner, R, Dieter, N, Durda, D, Geissler, P, Greenberg, RJ, Hoppa, G, Plassman, J, Tufts, R, Fanale, FP, Granahan, JC, Ip, WH, McElroy, M, Yatteau, J, Moore, WB, Schubert, G & Pilcher, CB 2001, 'Mountains on Io: High-resolution Galileo observations, initial interpretations, and formation models', Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets, vol. 106, no. E12, 2000JE001354, pp. 33175-33199.
Turtle EP, Jaeger WL, Keszthelyi LP, McEwen AS, Milazzo M, Moore J et al. Mountains on Io: High-resolution Galileo observations, initial interpretations, and formation models. Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets. 2001 Dec 25;106(E12):33175-33199. 2000JE001354.
Turtle, Elizabeth P. ; Jaeger, Windy L. ; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P. ; McEwen, Alfred S. ; Milazzo, Moses ; Moore, Jeff ; Phillips, Cynthia B. ; Radebaugh, Jani ; Simonelli, Damon ; Chuang, Frank ; Schuster, Peter ; Alexander, D. D A ; Capraro, K. ; Chang, S. H. ; Chen, A. C. ; Clark, J. ; Conner, D. L. ; Culver, A. ; Handley, T. H. ; Jensen, D. N. ; Knight, D. D. ; LaVoie, S. K. ; McAuley, M. ; Mego, V. ; Montoya, O. ; Mortensen, H. B. ; Noland, S. J. ; Patel, R. R. ; Pauro, T. M. ; Stanley, C. L. ; Steinwand, D. J. ; Thaller, T. F. ; Woncik, P. J. ; Yagi, G. M. ; Yoshimizu, J. R. ; Alvarez Del Castillo, E. M. ; Beyer, R. ; Branston, D. ; Fishburn, M. B. ; Muller, B. ; Ragan, R. ; Samarasinha, N. ; Anger, C. D. ; Cunningham, C. ; Little, B. ; Arriola, S. ; Carr, M. H. ; Asphaug, E. ; Morrison, D. ; Rages, K. ; Banfield, D. ; Bell, M. ; Burns, J. A. ; Carcich, B. ; Clark, B. ; Currier, N. ; Dauber, I. ; Gierasch, P. J. ; Helfenstein, P. ; Mann, M. ; Othman, O. ; Rossier, L. ; Solomon, N. ; Sullivan, R. ; Thomas, P. C. ; Veverka, J. ; Becker, T. ; Edwards, K. ; Gaddis, L. ; Kirk, R. ; Lee, E. ; Rosanova, T. ; Sucharski, R. M. ; Beebe, R. F. ; Simon, A. ; Belton, M. J S ; Bender, K. ; Fagents, S. ; Figueredo, P. ; Greeley, R. ; Homan, K. ; Kadel, S. ; Kerr, J. ; Klemaszewski, J. ; Lo, E. ; Schwarz, W. ; Sullivan, R. ; Williams, David ; Williams, K. ; Bierhaus, B. ; Brooks, S. ; Chapman, C. R. ; Merline, B. ; Keller, J. ; Tamblyn, P. ; Bouchez, A. ; Dyundian, U. ; Ingersoll, A. P. ; Showman, A. ; Spitale, J. ; Stewart, S. ; Vasavada, A. ; Breneman, H. H. ; Cunningham, W. F. ; Johnson, T. V. ; Jones, T. J. ; Kaufman, J. M. ; Klaasen, K. P. ; Levanas, G. ; Magee, K. P. ; Meredith, M. K. ; Orton, G. S. ; Senske, D. A. ; West, A. ; Winther, D. ; Collins, G. ; Fripp, W. J. ; Head, J. W. ; Pappalardo, R. ; Pratt, S. ; Prockter, L. ; Spaun, N. ; Colvin, T. ; Davies, M. ; DeJong, E. M. ; Hall, J. ; Suzuki, S. ; Gorjian, Z. ; Denk, T. ; Giese, B. ; Koehler, U. ; Neukum, G. ; Oberst, J. ; Roatsch, T. ; Tost, W. ; Wagner, R. ; Dieter, N. ; Durda, D. ; Geissler, P. ; Greenberg, R. J. ; Hoppa, G. ; Plassman, J. ; Tufts, R. ; Fanale, F. P. ; Granahan, J. C. ; Ip, W. H. ; McElroy, M. ; Yatteau, J. ; Moore, W. B. ; Schubert, G. ; Pilcher, C. B. / Mountains on Io : High-resolution Galileo observations, initial interpretations, and formation models. In: Journal of Geophysical Research E: Planets. 2001 ; Vol. 106, No. E12. pp. 33175-33199.
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title = "Mountains on Io: High-resolution Galileo observations, initial interpretations, and formation models",
abstract = "During three close flybys in late 1999 and early 2000 the Galileo spacecraft ac-quired new observations of the mountains that tower above Io's surface. These images have revealed surprising variety in the mountains' morphologies. They range from jagged peaks several kilometers high to lower, rounded structures. Some are very smooth, others are covered by numerous parallel ridges. Many mountains have margins that are collapsing outward in large landslides or series of slump blocks, but a few have steep, scalloped scarps. From these observations we can gain insight into the structure and material properties of Io's crust as well as into the erosional processes acting on Io. We have also investigated formation mechanisms proposed for these structures using finite-element analysis. Mountain formation might be initiated by global compression due to the high rate of global subsidence associated with Io's high resurfacing rate; however, our models demonstrate that this hypothesis lacks a mechanism for isolating the mountains. The large fraction (∼40{\%}) of mountains that are associated with paterae suggests that in some cases these features are tectonically related. Therefore we have also simulated the stresses induced in Io's crust by a combination of a thermal upwelling in the mantle with global lithospheric compression and have shown that this can focus compressional stresses. If this mechanism is responsible for some of Io's mountains, it could also explain the common association of mountains with paterae.",
author = "Turtle, {Elizabeth P.} and Jaeger, {Windy L.} and Keszthelyi, {Laszlo P.} and McEwen, {Alfred S.} and Moses Milazzo and Jeff Moore and Phillips, {Cynthia B.} and Jani Radebaugh and Damon Simonelli and Frank Chuang and Peter Schuster and Alexander, {D. D A} and K. Capraro and Chang, {S. H.} and Chen, {A. C.} and J. Clark and Conner, {D. L.} and A. Culver and Handley, {T. H.} and Jensen, {D. N.} and Knight, {D. D.} and LaVoie, {S. K.} and M. McAuley and V. Mego and O. Montoya and Mortensen, {H. B.} and Noland, {S. J.} and Patel, {R. R.} and Pauro, {T. M.} and Stanley, {C. L.} and Steinwand, {D. J.} and Thaller, {T. F.} and Woncik, {P. J.} and Yagi, {G. M.} and Yoshimizu, {J. R.} and {Alvarez Del Castillo}, {E. M.} and R. Beyer and D. Branston and Fishburn, {M. B.} and B. Muller and R. Ragan and N. Samarasinha and Anger, {C. D.} and C. Cunningham and B. Little and S. Arriola and Carr, {M. H.} and E. Asphaug and D. Morrison and K. Rages and D. Banfield and M. Bell and Burns, {J. A.} and B. Carcich and B. Clark and N. Currier and I. Dauber and Gierasch, {P. J.} and P. Helfenstein and M. Mann and O. Othman and L. Rossier and N. Solomon and R. Sullivan and Thomas, {P. C.} and J. Veverka and T. Becker and K. Edwards and L. Gaddis and R. Kirk and E. Lee and T. Rosanova and Sucharski, {R. M.} and Beebe, {R. F.} and A. Simon and Belton, {M. J S} and K. Bender and S. Fagents and P. Figueredo and R. Greeley and K. Homan and S. Kadel and J. Kerr and J. Klemaszewski and E. Lo and W. Schwarz and R. Sullivan and David Williams and K. Williams and B. Bierhaus and S. Brooks and Chapman, {C. R.} and B. Merline and J. Keller and P. Tamblyn and A. Bouchez and U. Dyundian and Ingersoll, {A. P.} and A. Showman and J. Spitale and S. Stewart and A. Vasavada and Breneman, {H. H.} and Cunningham, {W. F.} and Johnson, {T. V.} and Jones, {T. J.} and Kaufman, {J. M.} and Klaasen, {K. P.} and G. Levanas and Magee, {K. P.} and Meredith, {M. K.} and Orton, {G. S.} and Senske, {D. A.} and A. West and D. Winther and G. Collins and Fripp, {W. J.} and Head, {J. W.} and R. Pappalardo and S. Pratt and L. Prockter and N. Spaun and T. Colvin and M. Davies and DeJong, {E. M.} and J. Hall and S. Suzuki and Z. Gorjian and T. Denk and B. Giese and U. Koehler and G. Neukum and J. Oberst and T. Roatsch and W. Tost and R. Wagner and N. Dieter and D. Durda and P. Geissler and Greenberg, {R. J.} and G. Hoppa and J. Plassman and R. Tufts and Fanale, {F. P.} and Granahan, {J. C.} and Ip, {W. H.} and M. McElroy and J. Yatteau and Moore, {W. B.} and G. Schubert and Pilcher, {C. B.}",
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}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Mountains on Io

T2 - High-resolution Galileo observations, initial interpretations, and formation models

AU - Turtle, Elizabeth P.

AU - Jaeger, Windy L.

AU - Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

AU - McEwen, Alfred S.

AU - Milazzo, Moses

AU - Moore, Jeff

AU - Phillips, Cynthia B.

AU - Radebaugh, Jani

AU - Simonelli, Damon

AU - Chuang, Frank

AU - Schuster, Peter

AU - Alexander, D. D A

AU - Capraro, K.

AU - Chang, S. H.

AU - Chen, A. C.

AU - Clark, J.

AU - Conner, D. L.

AU - Culver, A.

AU - Handley, T. H.

AU - Jensen, D. N.

AU - Knight, D. D.

AU - LaVoie, S. K.

AU - McAuley, M.

AU - Mego, V.

AU - Montoya, O.

AU - Mortensen, H. B.

AU - Noland, S. J.

AU - Patel, R. R.

AU - Pauro, T. M.

AU - Stanley, C. L.

AU - Steinwand, D. J.

AU - Thaller, T. F.

AU - Woncik, P. J.

AU - Yagi, G. M.

AU - Yoshimizu, J. R.

AU - Alvarez Del Castillo, E. M.

AU - Beyer, R.

AU - Branston, D.

AU - Fishburn, M. B.

AU - Muller, B.

AU - Ragan, R.

AU - Samarasinha, N.

AU - Anger, C. D.

AU - Cunningham, C.

AU - Little, B.

AU - Arriola, S.

AU - Carr, M. H.

AU - Asphaug, E.

AU - Morrison, D.

AU - Rages, K.

AU - Banfield, D.

AU - Bell, M.

AU - Burns, J. A.

AU - Carcich, B.

AU - Clark, B.

AU - Currier, N.

AU - Dauber, I.

AU - Gierasch, P. J.

AU - Helfenstein, P.

AU - Mann, M.

AU - Othman, O.

AU - Rossier, L.

AU - Solomon, N.

AU - Sullivan, R.

AU - Thomas, P. C.

AU - Veverka, J.

AU - Becker, T.

AU - Edwards, K.

AU - Gaddis, L.

AU - Kirk, R.

AU - Lee, E.

AU - Rosanova, T.

AU - Sucharski, R. M.

AU - Beebe, R. F.

AU - Simon, A.

AU - Belton, M. J S

AU - Bender, K.

AU - Fagents, S.

AU - Figueredo, P.

AU - Greeley, R.

AU - Homan, K.

AU - Kadel, S.

AU - Kerr, J.

AU - Klemaszewski, J.

AU - Lo, E.

AU - Schwarz, W.

AU - Sullivan, R.

AU - Williams, David

AU - Williams, K.

AU - Bierhaus, B.

AU - Brooks, S.

AU - Chapman, C. R.

AU - Merline, B.

AU - Keller, J.

AU - Tamblyn, P.

AU - Bouchez, A.

AU - Dyundian, U.

AU - Ingersoll, A. P.

AU - Showman, A.

AU - Spitale, J.

AU - Stewart, S.

AU - Vasavada, A.

AU - Breneman, H. H.

AU - Cunningham, W. F.

AU - Johnson, T. V.

AU - Jones, T. J.

AU - Kaufman, J. M.

AU - Klaasen, K. P.

AU - Levanas, G.

AU - Magee, K. P.

AU - Meredith, M. K.

AU - Orton, G. S.

AU - Senske, D. A.

AU - West, A.

AU - Winther, D.

AU - Collins, G.

AU - Fripp, W. J.

AU - Head, J. W.

AU - Pappalardo, R.

AU - Pratt, S.

AU - Prockter, L.

AU - Spaun, N.

AU - Colvin, T.

AU - Davies, M.

AU - DeJong, E. M.

AU - Hall, J.

AU - Suzuki, S.

AU - Gorjian, Z.

AU - Denk, T.

AU - Giese, B.

AU - Koehler, U.

AU - Neukum, G.

AU - Oberst, J.

AU - Roatsch, T.

AU - Tost, W.

AU - Wagner, R.

AU - Dieter, N.

AU - Durda, D.

AU - Geissler, P.

AU - Greenberg, R. J.

AU - Hoppa, G.

AU - Plassman, J.

AU - Tufts, R.

AU - Fanale, F. P.

AU - Granahan, J. C.

AU - Ip, W. H.

AU - McElroy, M.

AU - Yatteau, J.

AU - Moore, W. B.

AU - Schubert, G.

AU - Pilcher, C. B.

PY - 2001/12/25

Y1 - 2001/12/25

N2 - During three close flybys in late 1999 and early 2000 the Galileo spacecraft ac-quired new observations of the mountains that tower above Io's surface. These images have revealed surprising variety in the mountains' morphologies. They range from jagged peaks several kilometers high to lower, rounded structures. Some are very smooth, others are covered by numerous parallel ridges. Many mountains have margins that are collapsing outward in large landslides or series of slump blocks, but a few have steep, scalloped scarps. From these observations we can gain insight into the structure and material properties of Io's crust as well as into the erosional processes acting on Io. We have also investigated formation mechanisms proposed for these structures using finite-element analysis. Mountain formation might be initiated by global compression due to the high rate of global subsidence associated with Io's high resurfacing rate; however, our models demonstrate that this hypothesis lacks a mechanism for isolating the mountains. The large fraction (∼40%) of mountains that are associated with paterae suggests that in some cases these features are tectonically related. Therefore we have also simulated the stresses induced in Io's crust by a combination of a thermal upwelling in the mantle with global lithospheric compression and have shown that this can focus compressional stresses. If this mechanism is responsible for some of Io's mountains, it could also explain the common association of mountains with paterae.

AB - During three close flybys in late 1999 and early 2000 the Galileo spacecraft ac-quired new observations of the mountains that tower above Io's surface. These images have revealed surprising variety in the mountains' morphologies. They range from jagged peaks several kilometers high to lower, rounded structures. Some are very smooth, others are covered by numerous parallel ridges. Many mountains have margins that are collapsing outward in large landslides or series of slump blocks, but a few have steep, scalloped scarps. From these observations we can gain insight into the structure and material properties of Io's crust as well as into the erosional processes acting on Io. We have also investigated formation mechanisms proposed for these structures using finite-element analysis. Mountain formation might be initiated by global compression due to the high rate of global subsidence associated with Io's high resurfacing rate; however, our models demonstrate that this hypothesis lacks a mechanism for isolating the mountains. The large fraction (∼40%) of mountains that are associated with paterae suggests that in some cases these features are tectonically related. Therefore we have also simulated the stresses induced in Io's crust by a combination of a thermal upwelling in the mantle with global lithospheric compression and have shown that this can focus compressional stresses. If this mechanism is responsible for some of Io's mountains, it could also explain the common association of mountains with paterae.

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JF - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

SN - 2169-897X

IS - E12

M1 - 2000JE001354

ER -