The global burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is becoming a growing problem in developing countries. Successful self-management of CVD is dependent on a multitude of factors, including social support, communication with health care providers, careful monitoring, and other determinants. The growing market penetration and the communication properties of mobile phones create opportunities for innovation in promoting CVD self-management through support of lifestyle and behavior modification. Mobile phones support various modes of communication and interaction, have fewer adoption barriers, and are more prevalent than other available technologies in developing countries. However, mobile phone interventions are not without many challenges such as mobile infrastructure, electric infrastructure, access to mobile devices, and appropriate user interfaces for interaction. In this paper, we discuss current evidence as well as research opportunities to explore the role of mobile phones in supporting behavior modification in developing countries.