Micro-structure refinement in low carbon high manganese steels through Ti-deoxidation - Inclusion precipitation and solidification structure

Naoki Kikuchi, Seiji Nabeshima, Yasuo Kishimoto, Seetharaman Sridhar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations

Abstract

The substitution of Al by Ti as a de-oxidizing agent in a carbon (0.07 wt%) and Mn (0.9 wt%) containing steel was studied for two purposes. The first one was to establish whether inclusion precipitation during solidification (secondary de-oxidation) can be promoted. The second purpose was to investigate the influence of secondary inclusions on the subsequent evolution of the steel solidification-structure, varying initial oxygen and titanium contents along with cooling rate during solidification. In the Ti-killed steel samples, the oxide inclusions were identified as MnO-TiO2 (0.5-5μm) and MnS (1-3μm) in the samples with the higher initial oxygen contents (Total Oxygen (T.O) = 50-80 ppm) while Ti-AI-(Mg)-O (0.3-1 μm) in the samples with the lower oxygen contents (T.O = 7-10 ppm). Comparing with thermodynamic calculations, the latter inclusions are considered to be the result of solely secondary de-oxidation precipitated in the inter-dendrite regions. For the high initial oxygen content, the inclusions were found as a result of both primary and secondary de-oxidation. The influence of cooling rate during solidification was investigated by controlling the cooling rate between 3-10 K/s by using different molds in a vacuum induction furnace. In addition, cooling rates were controlled at 1.1, 14 and 84 K/s by re-melting the samples in a gold-image furnace attached to a Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope (CSLM). An increase in the cooling rate resulted in an increase in the inclusion density in the Ti-killed samples while such an effect was not observed in the Al-killed sample. The secondary particle sizes for the Ti-killed sample predicted by a solute segregation model during solidification agreed well with the observed average particle sizes. In the Ti-killed samples, the solidification structure was finer with increasing density of inclusions below 1 μm, whereas such an effect was not observed in the Al-killed samples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)934-943
Number of pages10
JournalISIJ International
Volume48
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Cooling-rate
  • De-oxidation
  • Inclusion precipitation
  • Low-carbon steel
  • Solidification microstructure
  • Titanium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry

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