Methods and Measures

Growth mixture modeling: A method for identifying differences in longitudinal change among unobserved groups

Nilam Ram, Kevin Grimm

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

306 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Growth mixture modeling (GMM) is a method for identifying multiple unobserved sub-populations, describing longitudinal change within each unobserved sub-population, and examining differences in change among unobserved sub-populations. We provide a practical primer that may be useful for researchers beginning to incorporate GMM analysis into their research. We briefly review basic elements of the standard latent basis growth curve model, introduce GMM as an extension of multiple-group growth modeling, and describe a four-step approach to conducting a GMM analysis. Example data from a cortisol stress-response paradigm are used to illustrate the suggested procedures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)565-576
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Development
Volume33
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Aging
  • Cortisol
  • Development
  • Dynamic process
  • Growth mixture modeling
  • Latent growth
  • Longitudinal methods

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

Cite this

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