Merging metagenomics and geochemistry reveals environmental controls on biological diversity and evolution

Eric B. Alsop, Eric S. Boyd, Jason Raymond

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The metabolic strategies employed by microbes inhabiting natural systems are, in large part, dictated by the physical and geochemical properties of the environment. This study sheds light onto the complex relationship between biology and environmental geochemistry using forty-three metagenomes collected from geochemically diverse and globally distributed natural systems. It is widely hypothesized that many uncommonly measured geochemical parameters affect community dynamics and this study leverages the development and application of multidimensional biogeochemical metrics to study correlations between geochemistry and microbial ecology. Analysis techniques such as a Markov cluster-based measure of the evolutionary distance between whole communities and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the geochemical gradients between environments allows for the determination of correlations between microbial community dynamics and environmental geochemistry and provides insight into which geochemical parameters most strongly influence microbial biodiversity.Results: By progressively building from samples taken along well defined geochemical gradients to samples widely dispersed in geochemical space this study reveals strong links between the extent of taxonomic and functional diversification of resident communities and environmental geochemistry and reveals temperature and pH as the primary factors that have shaped the evolution of these communities. Moreover, the inclusion of extensive geochemical data into analyses reveals new links between geochemical parameters (e.g. oxygen and trace element availability) and the distribution and taxonomic diversification of communities at the functional level. Further, an overall geochemical gradient (from multivariate analyses) between natural systems provides one of the most complete predictions of microbial taxonomic and functional composition.Conclusions: Clustering based on the frequency in which orthologous proteins occur among metagenomes facilitated accurate prediction of the ordering of community functional composition along geochemical gradients, despite a lack of geochemical input. The consistency in the results obtained from the application of Markov clustering and multivariate methods to distinct natural systems underscore their utility in predicting the functional potential of microbial communities within a natural system based on system geochemistry alone, allowing geochemical measurements to be used to predict purely biological metrics such as microbial community composition and metabolism.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number16
JournalBMC Ecology
Volume14
DOIs
StatePublished - May 28 2014

Fingerprint

geochemistry
biodiversity
microbial communities
microbial community
community dynamics
microbial ecology
prediction
community composition
trace elements
principal component analysis
metabolism
environmental control
trace element
microorganisms
oxygen
sampling
Biological Sciences
protein
methodology
parameter

Keywords

  • Geochemistry
  • Hydrothermal ecosystems
  • Markov clustering
  • Metagenomics
  • Microbial ecology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Cite this

Merging metagenomics and geochemistry reveals environmental controls on biological diversity and evolution. / Alsop, Eric B.; Boyd, Eric S.; Raymond, Jason.

In: BMC Ecology, Vol. 14, 16, 28.05.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: The metabolic strategies employed by microbes inhabiting natural systems are, in large part, dictated by the physical and geochemical properties of the environment. This study sheds light onto the complex relationship between biology and environmental geochemistry using forty-three metagenomes collected from geochemically diverse and globally distributed natural systems. It is widely hypothesized that many uncommonly measured geochemical parameters affect community dynamics and this study leverages the development and application of multidimensional biogeochemical metrics to study correlations between geochemistry and microbial ecology. Analysis techniques such as a Markov cluster-based measure of the evolutionary distance between whole communities and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the geochemical gradients between environments allows for the determination of correlations between microbial community dynamics and environmental geochemistry and provides insight into which geochemical parameters most strongly influence microbial biodiversity.Results: By progressively building from samples taken along well defined geochemical gradients to samples widely dispersed in geochemical space this study reveals strong links between the extent of taxonomic and functional diversification of resident communities and environmental geochemistry and reveals temperature and pH as the primary factors that have shaped the evolution of these communities. Moreover, the inclusion of extensive geochemical data into analyses reveals new links between geochemical parameters (e.g. oxygen and trace element availability) and the distribution and taxonomic diversification of communities at the functional level. Further, an overall geochemical gradient (from multivariate analyses) between natural systems provides one of the most complete predictions of microbial taxonomic and functional composition.Conclusions: Clustering based on the frequency in which orthologous proteins occur among metagenomes facilitated accurate prediction of the ordering of community functional composition along geochemical gradients, despite a lack of geochemical input. The consistency in the results obtained from the application of Markov clustering and multivariate methods to distinct natural systems underscore their utility in predicting the functional potential of microbial communities within a natural system based on system geochemistry alone, allowing geochemical measurements to be used to predict purely biological metrics such as microbial community composition and metabolism.",
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