This review aims to summarize our current state of knowledge of several post-translational modification mechanisms known to yield red fluorescence in the family of GFP-like (green fluorescent protein-like) proteins. We begin with a brief review of the maturation mechanism that leads to green fluorescence in GFPs. The main body of this article is focused on a series of main chain redox and β-elimination reactions mediated by light and O2, ultimately yielding a red-emitting chromophore. In all GFP-like proteins, a tyrosine-derived phenolic group constitutes an essential building block of the chromophore's skeleton. Two major classes of red-emitting species have been identified in naturally occurring fluorescent proteins. In the DsRed type, an acylimine moiety is found to be conjugated to the GFP-like chromophore. Recent evidence has suggested that two mechanistic pathways, a green branch and a red branch, diverge from an early cyclic intermediate that bears a standard tyrosine side chain. Therefore, the long-standing notion that all FP colors originate from modifications of the GFP-like chromophore may need to be revised. In the Kaede-type green-to-red photoconvertible class of FPs, a light-mediated main chain elimination reaction partakes in the formation of a three-ring chromophore that involves the incorporation of a histidine residue into the conjugated system. A mechanistic role for photoexcitation of the GFP-like chromophore is undisputed; however, the nature of associated proton transfer steps and the charge state of the critical imidazole group remain controversial. In addition to the two major classes of red fluorescent proteins, we briefly describe yellow fluorescence arising from modifications of DsRed-type intermediates, and the less well understood photoactivated oxidative redding phenomenon.
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