Measuring team situation awareness in decentralized command and control environments

Jamie C. Gorman, Nancy Cooke, Jennifer L. Winner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

245 Scopus citations


Decentralized command and control settings like those found in the military are rife with complexity and change. These settings typically involve dozens, if not hundreds to thousands, of heterogeneous players coordinating in a distributed fashion in a dynamically networked battlefield laden with sensor data, intelligence reports, communications, and plans emanating from many different perspectives. Consider the concept of team situation awareness in this setting. What does it mean for a team to be aware of a situation or, more importantly, of a critical change in a situation? Is it sufficient or necessary for all individuals on the team to be independently aware? Or is there some more holistic awareness that emerges as team members interact? We re-examine the concept of team situation awareness in decentralized systems beyond an individual-oriented knowledge-based construct by considering it as a team interaction-based phenomenon. A theoretical framework for a process-based measure called 'coordinated awareness of situations by teams' is outlined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1312-1325
Number of pages14
Issue number12-13
StatePublished - Oct 10 2006


  • Command and control
  • Situation awareness
  • Team cognition
  • Teams

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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