Measuring individualism and collectivism: The importance of considering differential components, reference groups, and measurement invariance

Fang Fang Chen, Stephen West

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A new instrument of individualism and collectivism (I/C) was developed and three key issues in I/C measurement were addressed: differentiating components of I/C, understanding the impact of reference groups, and testing of measurement invariance. Three components of I/C were assessed in China and the U.S.: independence, competitiveness, and uniqueness for individualism; considering of one's decisions on others, sharing of positive outcomes, and sharing of negative outcomes for collectivism. Collectivism was measured with respect to parents, friends, and general others. Results indicate that Chinese participants are less unique but more independent and competitive than their counterparts in the U.S. The expected cultural difference is found for parent collectivism across all three components and for sharing negative outcome with respect to all three reference groups. These results suggest that individualism is a multidimensional construct, whereas the dimensionality of collectivism appears to be a function of social distance. Measurement invariance was tested at configural, factor loading, and intercept levels for all components of I/C.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)259-294
Number of pages36
JournalJournal of Research in Personality
Volume42
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2008

Fingerprint

Social Distance
China
Parents

Keywords

  • Cultural differences
  • Measurement invariance
  • Measurement of individualism and collectivism
  • Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis
  • Relational groups

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology

Cite this

@article{873a260811054029bb3071cf1cd0a573,
title = "Measuring individualism and collectivism: The importance of considering differential components, reference groups, and measurement invariance",
abstract = "A new instrument of individualism and collectivism (I/C) was developed and three key issues in I/C measurement were addressed: differentiating components of I/C, understanding the impact of reference groups, and testing of measurement invariance. Three components of I/C were assessed in China and the U.S.: independence, competitiveness, and uniqueness for individualism; considering of one's decisions on others, sharing of positive outcomes, and sharing of negative outcomes for collectivism. Collectivism was measured with respect to parents, friends, and general others. Results indicate that Chinese participants are less unique but more independent and competitive than their counterparts in the U.S. The expected cultural difference is found for parent collectivism across all three components and for sharing negative outcome with respect to all three reference groups. These results suggest that individualism is a multidimensional construct, whereas the dimensionality of collectivism appears to be a function of social distance. Measurement invariance was tested at configural, factor loading, and intercept levels for all components of I/C.",
keywords = "Cultural differences, Measurement invariance, Measurement of individualism and collectivism, Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, Relational groups",
author = "Chen, {Fang Fang} and Stephen West",
year = "2008",
month = "4",
doi = "10.1016/j.jrp.2007.05.006",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "42",
pages = "259--294",
journal = "Journal of Research in Personality",
issn = "0092-6566",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Measuring individualism and collectivism

T2 - The importance of considering differential components, reference groups, and measurement invariance

AU - Chen, Fang Fang

AU - West, Stephen

PY - 2008/4

Y1 - 2008/4

N2 - A new instrument of individualism and collectivism (I/C) was developed and three key issues in I/C measurement were addressed: differentiating components of I/C, understanding the impact of reference groups, and testing of measurement invariance. Three components of I/C were assessed in China and the U.S.: independence, competitiveness, and uniqueness for individualism; considering of one's decisions on others, sharing of positive outcomes, and sharing of negative outcomes for collectivism. Collectivism was measured with respect to parents, friends, and general others. Results indicate that Chinese participants are less unique but more independent and competitive than their counterparts in the U.S. The expected cultural difference is found for parent collectivism across all three components and for sharing negative outcome with respect to all three reference groups. These results suggest that individualism is a multidimensional construct, whereas the dimensionality of collectivism appears to be a function of social distance. Measurement invariance was tested at configural, factor loading, and intercept levels for all components of I/C.

AB - A new instrument of individualism and collectivism (I/C) was developed and three key issues in I/C measurement were addressed: differentiating components of I/C, understanding the impact of reference groups, and testing of measurement invariance. Three components of I/C were assessed in China and the U.S.: independence, competitiveness, and uniqueness for individualism; considering of one's decisions on others, sharing of positive outcomes, and sharing of negative outcomes for collectivism. Collectivism was measured with respect to parents, friends, and general others. Results indicate that Chinese participants are less unique but more independent and competitive than their counterparts in the U.S. The expected cultural difference is found for parent collectivism across all three components and for sharing negative outcome with respect to all three reference groups. These results suggest that individualism is a multidimensional construct, whereas the dimensionality of collectivism appears to be a function of social distance. Measurement invariance was tested at configural, factor loading, and intercept levels for all components of I/C.

KW - Cultural differences

KW - Measurement invariance

KW - Measurement of individualism and collectivism

KW - Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis

KW - Relational groups

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=41649115202&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=41649115202&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jrp.2007.05.006

DO - 10.1016/j.jrp.2007.05.006

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:41649115202

VL - 42

SP - 259

EP - 294

JO - Journal of Research in Personality

JF - Journal of Research in Personality

SN - 0092-6566

IS - 2

ER -