Measurement equivalence of child feeding and eating measures across gender, ethnicity, and household food security

Marisol Perez La Mar, Tara K. Ohrt, Amanda B. Bruening, Aaron B. Taylor, Jeffrey Liew, Ashley M.W. Kroon Van Diest, Tatianna Ungredda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: Although there have been extensive studies that make group comparisons on child eating and feeding practices, few studies have examined measurement equivalence to ensure that measures used to make such group comparisons are equivalent across important group characteristics related to childhood obesity. Methods: Using a sample of 243 caregivers with children between the ages of 4 to 6years, we conducted a measurement equivalence analysis across gender, ethnicity (Latino versus non-Latino White), and household food security. The subscales of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) and the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) were examined separately using a one factor multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. Results: For the CFQ, Concern about Child Weight and Parental Responsibility subscales were consistent across all groups examined. In contrast, Pressure to Eat, Restriction, and Perceived Parent Weight subscales varied or fit poorly across the groups. For the CEBQ, Emotional Overeating, Enjoyment of Food, and Satiety Responsiveness performed consistently across the groups. On the other hand, Food Fussiness, Desire to Drink, Slowness in Eating, and Emotional Undereating subscales varied or fit poorly across the groups. Conclusions: Findings from this study suggest both of these measures need continued psychometric work, and group comparisons using some subscales should be interpreted cautiously. Some subscales such as Food Responsiveness and Parental Restriction may be assessing behaviors that occur in food secure households and are less applicable to food insecure environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number17
JournalBMC Obesity
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jun 11 2018


  • Child eating behaviour questionnaire
  • Child feeding
  • Child feeding questionnaire
  • Eating behaviors
  • Food security
  • Gender
  • Hispanic
  • Latino
  • Measurement invariance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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