The comparative text-processing benefits of matrix structures, mnemonic representations, and their combination were examined in 3 experiments (1 with college students, 2 with 5th graders). The study's major findings permit the following conclusions: First, contrary to previous research on the topic, 2-dimensional matrices (whether in a verbal or pictorial format) produced only limited positive effects on students' text-learning performance, relative to either corresponding linear outlines or text alone. Second, and in contrast, appropriate mnemonic representations (whether individually presented or embedded in a matrix) did prove to be highly effective text-learning facilitators of students' memory and application in both individual- and group-testing situations, both immediately following instruction and on 1-week delayed tests. Third, relatively little advantage of the mnemonic matrix over individual mnemonic representations was detected.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology