Macronutrient intakes in 553 Dutch elite and sub-elite endurance, team, and strength athletes: Does intake differ between sport disciplines?

Floris Wardenaar, Naomi Brinkmans, Ingrid Ceelen, Bo Van Rooij, Marco Mensink, Renger Witkamp, Jeanne De Vries

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch welltrained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between disciplinecategories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg−1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%-80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg−1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 minutes per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg−1. However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number119
JournalNutrients
Volume9
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 10 2017
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

athletes
sports
Athletes
Sports
Energy Intake
carbohydrate intake
sports nutrition
Carbohydrates
energy intake
fatigue strength
Guidelines
diet recall
energy
Proteins
exercise
questionnaires
proteins
Exercise
carbohydrates
body weight

Keywords

  • Competitive athletes
  • Dietary intake
  • Guidelines
  • Recommendations
  • Sport nutrition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Macronutrient intakes in 553 Dutch elite and sub-elite endurance, team, and strength athletes : Does intake differ between sport disciplines? / Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne.

In: Nutrients, Vol. 9, No. 2, 119, 10.02.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wardenaar, Floris ; Brinkmans, Naomi ; Ceelen, Ingrid ; Van Rooij, Bo ; Mensink, Marco ; Witkamp, Renger ; De Vries, Jeanne. / Macronutrient intakes in 553 Dutch elite and sub-elite endurance, team, and strength athletes : Does intake differ between sport disciplines?. In: Nutrients. 2017 ; Vol. 9, No. 2.
@article{726bfb9aa8d644d89886811d44c10f30,
title = "Macronutrient intakes in 553 Dutch elite and sub-elite endurance, team, and strength athletes: Does intake differ between sport disciplines?",
abstract = "Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch welltrained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between disciplinecategories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80{\%} of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg−1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50{\%}-80{\%} of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg−1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 minutes per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg−1. However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation.",
keywords = "Competitive athletes, Dietary intake, Guidelines, Recommendations, Sport nutrition",
author = "Floris Wardenaar and Naomi Brinkmans and Ingrid Ceelen and {Van Rooij}, Bo and Marco Mensink and Renger Witkamp and {De Vries}, Jeanne",
year = "2017",
month = "2",
day = "10",
doi = "10.3390/nu9020119",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "9",
journal = "Nutrients",
issn = "2072-6643",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Macronutrient intakes in 553 Dutch elite and sub-elite endurance, team, and strength athletes

T2 - Does intake differ between sport disciplines?

AU - Wardenaar, Floris

AU - Brinkmans, Naomi

AU - Ceelen, Ingrid

AU - Van Rooij, Bo

AU - Mensink, Marco

AU - Witkamp, Renger

AU - De Vries, Jeanne

PY - 2017/2/10

Y1 - 2017/2/10

N2 - Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch welltrained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between disciplinecategories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg−1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%-80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg−1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 minutes per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg−1. However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation.

AB - Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch welltrained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between disciplinecategories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg−1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%-80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg−1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 minutes per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg−1. However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation.

KW - Competitive athletes

KW - Dietary intake

KW - Guidelines

KW - Recommendations

KW - Sport nutrition

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85012280161&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85012280161&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/nu9020119

DO - 10.3390/nu9020119

M3 - Article

C2 - 28208581

AN - SCOPUS:85012280161

VL - 9

JO - Nutrients

JF - Nutrients

SN - 2072-6643

IS - 2

M1 - 119

ER -