### Abstract

In this article, an algorithm to identify LPV State Space models for both continuous-time and discrete-time systems is proposed. The LPV state space system is in the Companion Reachable Canonical Form. The output vector coefficients are linear combinations of a set of a possibly infinite number of nonlinear basis functions dependent on the scheduling signal, the state matrix is either time invariant or a linear combination of a finite number of basis functions of the scheduling signal and the input vector is time invariant. This model structure, although simple, can describe accurately the behaviour of many nonlinear SISO systems by an adequate choice of the scheduling signal. It also partially solves the problems of structural bias caused by inaccurate selection of the basis functions and high variance of the estimates due to over-parameterisation. The use of an infinite number of basis functions in the output vector increases the flexibility to describe complex functions and makes it possible to learn the underlying dependencies of these coefficients from the data. A Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) approach is used to address the infinite dimension of the output coefficients. Since there is a linear dependence of the output on the output vector coefficients and, on the other hand, the LS-SVM solution is a nonlinear function of the state and input matrix coefficients, the LPV system is identified by minimising a quadratic function of the output function in a reduced parameter space; the minimisation of the error is performed by a separable approach where the parameters of the fixed matrices are calculated using a gradient method. The derivatives required by this algorithm are the output of either an LTI or an LPV (in the case of a time-varying SS matrix) system, that need to be simulated at every iteration. The effectiveness of the algorithm is assessed on several simulated examples.

Original language | English (US) |
---|---|

Article number | 7039778 |

Pages (from-to) | 2548-2554 |

Number of pages | 7 |

Journal | Unknown Journal |

Volume | 2015-February |

Issue number | February |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 2014 |

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### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Control and Systems Engineering
- Modeling and Simulation
- Control and Optimization

### Cite this

*Unknown Journal*,

*2015-February*(February), 2548-2554. [7039778]. https://doi.org/10.1109/CDC.2014.7039778

**LPV system identification using a separable least squares support vector machines approach.** / Lopes Dos Santos, P.; Azevedo-Perdicoulis, T. P.; Ramos, J. A.; Deshpande, S.; Rivera, Daniel; Martins De Carvalho, J. L.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*Unknown Journal*, vol. 2015-February, no. February, 7039778, pp. 2548-2554. https://doi.org/10.1109/CDC.2014.7039778

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - LPV system identification using a separable least squares support vector machines approach

AU - Lopes Dos Santos, P.

AU - Azevedo-Perdicoulis, T. P.

AU - Ramos, J. A.

AU - Deshpande, S.

AU - Rivera, Daniel

AU - Martins De Carvalho, J. L.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - In this article, an algorithm to identify LPV State Space models for both continuous-time and discrete-time systems is proposed. The LPV state space system is in the Companion Reachable Canonical Form. The output vector coefficients are linear combinations of a set of a possibly infinite number of nonlinear basis functions dependent on the scheduling signal, the state matrix is either time invariant or a linear combination of a finite number of basis functions of the scheduling signal and the input vector is time invariant. This model structure, although simple, can describe accurately the behaviour of many nonlinear SISO systems by an adequate choice of the scheduling signal. It also partially solves the problems of structural bias caused by inaccurate selection of the basis functions and high variance of the estimates due to over-parameterisation. The use of an infinite number of basis functions in the output vector increases the flexibility to describe complex functions and makes it possible to learn the underlying dependencies of these coefficients from the data. A Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) approach is used to address the infinite dimension of the output coefficients. Since there is a linear dependence of the output on the output vector coefficients and, on the other hand, the LS-SVM solution is a nonlinear function of the state and input matrix coefficients, the LPV system is identified by minimising a quadratic function of the output function in a reduced parameter space; the minimisation of the error is performed by a separable approach where the parameters of the fixed matrices are calculated using a gradient method. The derivatives required by this algorithm are the output of either an LTI or an LPV (in the case of a time-varying SS matrix) system, that need to be simulated at every iteration. The effectiveness of the algorithm is assessed on several simulated examples.

AB - In this article, an algorithm to identify LPV State Space models for both continuous-time and discrete-time systems is proposed. The LPV state space system is in the Companion Reachable Canonical Form. The output vector coefficients are linear combinations of a set of a possibly infinite number of nonlinear basis functions dependent on the scheduling signal, the state matrix is either time invariant or a linear combination of a finite number of basis functions of the scheduling signal and the input vector is time invariant. This model structure, although simple, can describe accurately the behaviour of many nonlinear SISO systems by an adequate choice of the scheduling signal. It also partially solves the problems of structural bias caused by inaccurate selection of the basis functions and high variance of the estimates due to over-parameterisation. The use of an infinite number of basis functions in the output vector increases the flexibility to describe complex functions and makes it possible to learn the underlying dependencies of these coefficients from the data. A Least Squares Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) approach is used to address the infinite dimension of the output coefficients. Since there is a linear dependence of the output on the output vector coefficients and, on the other hand, the LS-SVM solution is a nonlinear function of the state and input matrix coefficients, the LPV system is identified by minimising a quadratic function of the output function in a reduced parameter space; the minimisation of the error is performed by a separable approach where the parameters of the fixed matrices are calculated using a gradient method. The derivatives required by this algorithm are the output of either an LTI or an LPV (in the case of a time-varying SS matrix) system, that need to be simulated at every iteration. The effectiveness of the algorithm is assessed on several simulated examples.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84962018844&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84962018844&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/CDC.2014.7039778

DO - 10.1109/CDC.2014.7039778

M3 - Article

VL - 2015-February

SP - 2548

EP - 2554

JO - Scanning Electron Microscopy

JF - Scanning Electron Microscopy

SN - 0586-5581

IS - February

M1 - 7039778

ER -