Low-Cost Structural Monitoring of Analog Circuits for Secure and Reliable Operation

Bora Bilgic, Sule Ozev

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The need for digital calibration due to large variations in fine-geometry processes as well as the need for performance locking mechanisms to prevent IC piracy have resulted in the prevalent use of digital assistance for analog circuits. In order to ensure the secure and reliable operation of the system, the performance of the analog circuits needs to be monitored in the field with robust, low-cost methods. In this paper, we propose a method reliant on monitoring simple invariants for detecting performance degradation of digitally-assisted analog circuits. We demonstrate the proposed method on two circuits: a low drop-out voltage regulator (LDO) and an active low-pass filter. Extensive Monte-Carlo simulations confirm that the proposed method detects deviations in performance due to tampering.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages1
JournalIEEE Design and Test
StateAccepted/In press - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • analog
  • Analog circuits
  • Calibration
  • degradation
  • Degradation
  • detection
  • filter
  • locking
  • low drop out
  • monitoring
  • Monitoring
  • performance
  • Performance evaluation
  • security
  • Security
  • Trojan horses

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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