Longitudinal Associations between Gender and Ethnic-Racial Identity Felt Pressure from Family and Peers and Self-Esteem among African American and Latino/a Youth

Keiko Aoyagi, Carlos E. Santos, Kimberly Updegraff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Gender identity felt pressure is negatively associated with adjustment indices, including self-esteem, among children and early adolescents, and both gender and ethnic-racial identity felt pressure are negatively associated with self-esteem among young adults. This study explored the longitudinal associations between gender identity and ethnic-racial identity felt pressure from family and peers to behave in either gender or race/ethnic-accordant ways, and self-esteem among a sample of 750 (49.2% female) African American (n = 194) and Latino/a youth (n = 556) (M = 12.10 years, SD = .97 years). For African Americans, the results revealed significant negative longitudinal associations between (a) ethnic-racial identity felt pressure from family at Time 1 and self-esteem at Time 2 and (b) ethnic-racial identity felt pressure from peers at Time 1 and self-esteem at Time 2, controlling for self-esteem at Time 1. These associations were not found among Latinos/as, nor were associations found between gender identity felt pressure from peers or family and self-esteem. The findings are discussed by drawing on the gender identity and ethnic-racial identity literatures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Youth and Adolescence
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Oct 6 2017

Fingerprint

Hispanic Americans
Self Concept
African Americans
self-esteem
gender
Pressure
Social Adjustment
Peer Influence
American
Longitudinal Studies
Young Adult
young adult
time
adolescent

Keywords

  • Early adolescence
  • Ethnic-racial identity
  • Felt pressure
  • Gender identity
  • Self-esteem

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

Cite this

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abstract = "Gender identity felt pressure is negatively associated with adjustment indices, including self-esteem, among children and early adolescents, and both gender and ethnic-racial identity felt pressure are negatively associated with self-esteem among young adults. This study explored the longitudinal associations between gender identity and ethnic-racial identity felt pressure from family and peers to behave in either gender or race/ethnic-accordant ways, and self-esteem among a sample of 750 (49.2{\%} female) African American (n = 194) and Latino/a youth (n = 556) (M = 12.10 years, SD = .97 years). For African Americans, the results revealed significant negative longitudinal associations between (a) ethnic-racial identity felt pressure from family at Time 1 and self-esteem at Time 2 and (b) ethnic-racial identity felt pressure from peers at Time 1 and self-esteem at Time 2, controlling for self-esteem at Time 1. These associations were not found among Latinos/as, nor were associations found between gender identity felt pressure from peers or family and self-esteem. The findings are discussed by drawing on the gender identity and ethnic-racial identity literatures.",
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