Long-Term settlement history and the emergence of towns in the zuni area

Keith Kintigh, Donna M. Glowacki, Deborah L. Huntley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

37 Scopus citations

Abstract

From a regional perspective, the late thirteenth-century aggregation of village populations into large towns in the northern Southwest appears to be a brief and dramatic episode of social reorganization. That it is apparent across such a range of cultural and ecological circumstances suggests that a regional perspective will be needed to understand why it occurred. However, if we are to understand how it occurred-the social processes involved in the aggregation of populations into large towns-a high resolution, long-term view of the settlement history of particular localities provides a necessary complement to the regional view. We present a detailed examination ofllie development of one town in the American Southwest, the large,prehistoric Zuni town of Heshot ula. Without the long-term demographic reconstruction made possible by a fine-grained seriation and full-coverage survey, we would have seen this key transition as much more rapid and much less closely tied to the local situation than it now appears to be. Although this pueblo was built about A.D. 1275, we argue that its appearacance was, at once, the culmination of demographic processes operating over at least 150 years, and the outcome of two more rapid, qualitative organizational transformations separated by a century. Desde una perspectiva regional, el proceso que ocurrió en el siglo trece en el Suiveste de los Estados Unidos, en el que las poblaciones de pequeñas villas se agregaron en pueblos grandes, parece ser un episodio breve y dramático de la reorganización social. Este hecho, aparente en un gran rango de circunstancias culturales y ecológicas sugiere que se requiere de una perspectiva regional para enlender el por que ocurrio. Sin embargo, si qiieremos entender como ocurrio-el proceso social involucrado en la agregacion de las poblaciones en pueblos grandes-necesilamos de una perspectiva detallada y a largo plow proporcionada por la hisloria de los asenlamientos de localidades particiilares, que necesariamente complementan la vision regional. Preseiilanios aqui un examen delallado del desarrollo del pueblo Ziini de Heshot u fa, un pueblo prehistorico grande del Suroesle de los Eslado Unidos. Sin la reconslniccion demografica a largo plaw que ha sidoposible gracias a una seriacion detallada y a un reconocimiento de siiperficie de coberliira total, luibieramos vislo esta transicion como mds rap-ida y miiclio menos conectada con la sitiiacion local, de lo que ahora nos parece. Aunque esle pueblo se construyo cerca de los 1275 anos D.C., argumentamos que su aparicion file, al mismo tiempo, la culminacion de iin proceso demogrdfico que opero durante por lo menos ISO anos, y el resultado de dos transforinaciones organizacionales mds rdpidas separadas por un siglo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)432-456
Number of pages25
JournalAmerican Antiquity
Volume69
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • History
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Archaeology
  • Museology

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