Abstract

Background: The school lunch environment is a prime target for increasing a child's consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables (F/V). Salad bars are heavily encouraged in schools; however, more research is needed to examine the contexts in which salad bars promote consumption of F/V among students. Objective: To compare the amount of fresh F/V self-served, consumed, and wasted by students during lunch at schools with differing salad bar placement: inside or outside of the serving line. Design: Cross-sectional plate waste study in which salad bar placement differed between schools. Participants/setting: A random sample of middle school students (N=533) from six schools (three schools per district). Main outcome measures: Amount of fresh F/V taken, consumed, and wasted. Statistical analyses: Negative binomial multivariable regression examined placement of salad bars, adjusting for sex, grade, race/ethnicity, free/reduced status, day of the week, and nesting of students within schools. Results: Almost all students (98.6%) in the schools with salad bars inside serving lines self-served F/V compared with only 22.6% of students in the schools with salad bars outside lines (adjusted prevalence ratio=5.38; 95% CI 4.04 to 7.17). Similarly, students at schools with salad bars inside the line had greater prevalence of consuming any F/V compared with students in schools with salad bars outside the line (adjusted prevalence ratio=4.83; 95% CI 3.40 to 6.81). On average, students with the salad bar outside the line wasted less F/V compared with those with salad bars inside the line (30% vs 48%, respectively). Conclusions: Few students visited salad bars located outside the lunch line. Salad bars inside the lunch line resulted in significantly greater fresh F/V taken, consumed, and wasted. When possible, schools should try to include salad bars inside the line to increase students' exposure to F/V.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)407-416
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Volume116
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016

Fingerprint

salad bars
plate waste
school lunch
Lunch
vegetable consumption
fruit consumption
Vegetables
Fruit
Students
students
raw vegetables
raw fruit
lunch
vegetables
fruits
middle school students

Keywords

  • Children
  • Fruit and vegetable intake
  • School lunch
  • Students
  • Waste

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

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title = "Location of School Lunch Salad Bars and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Middle Schools: A Cross-Sectional Plate Waste Study",
abstract = "Background: The school lunch environment is a prime target for increasing a child's consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables (F/V). Salad bars are heavily encouraged in schools; however, more research is needed to examine the contexts in which salad bars promote consumption of F/V among students. Objective: To compare the amount of fresh F/V self-served, consumed, and wasted by students during lunch at schools with differing salad bar placement: inside or outside of the serving line. Design: Cross-sectional plate waste study in which salad bar placement differed between schools. Participants/setting: A random sample of middle school students (N=533) from six schools (three schools per district). Main outcome measures: Amount of fresh F/V taken, consumed, and wasted. Statistical analyses: Negative binomial multivariable regression examined placement of salad bars, adjusting for sex, grade, race/ethnicity, free/reduced status, day of the week, and nesting of students within schools. Results: Almost all students (98.6{\%}) in the schools with salad bars inside serving lines self-served F/V compared with only 22.6{\%} of students in the schools with salad bars outside lines (adjusted prevalence ratio=5.38; 95{\%} CI 4.04 to 7.17). Similarly, students at schools with salad bars inside the line had greater prevalence of consuming any F/V compared with students in schools with salad bars outside the line (adjusted prevalence ratio=4.83; 95{\%} CI 3.40 to 6.81). On average, students with the salad bar outside the line wasted less F/V compared with those with salad bars inside the line (30{\%} vs 48{\%}, respectively). Conclusions: Few students visited salad bars located outside the lunch line. Salad bars inside the lunch line resulted in significantly greater fresh F/V taken, consumed, and wasted. When possible, schools should try to include salad bars inside the line to increase students' exposure to F/V.",
keywords = "Children, Fruit and vegetable intake, School lunch, Students, Waste",
author = "Marc Adams and Meredith Bruening and Punam Ohri-Vachaspati and Hurley, {Jane C.}",
year = "2016",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jand.2015.10.011",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "116",
pages = "407--416",
journal = "Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics",
issn = "2212-2672",
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}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Location of School Lunch Salad Bars and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Middle Schools

T2 - A Cross-Sectional Plate Waste Study

AU - Adams, Marc

AU - Bruening, Meredith

AU - Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

AU - Hurley, Jane C.

PY - 2016/3/1

Y1 - 2016/3/1

N2 - Background: The school lunch environment is a prime target for increasing a child's consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables (F/V). Salad bars are heavily encouraged in schools; however, more research is needed to examine the contexts in which salad bars promote consumption of F/V among students. Objective: To compare the amount of fresh F/V self-served, consumed, and wasted by students during lunch at schools with differing salad bar placement: inside or outside of the serving line. Design: Cross-sectional plate waste study in which salad bar placement differed between schools. Participants/setting: A random sample of middle school students (N=533) from six schools (three schools per district). Main outcome measures: Amount of fresh F/V taken, consumed, and wasted. Statistical analyses: Negative binomial multivariable regression examined placement of salad bars, adjusting for sex, grade, race/ethnicity, free/reduced status, day of the week, and nesting of students within schools. Results: Almost all students (98.6%) in the schools with salad bars inside serving lines self-served F/V compared with only 22.6% of students in the schools with salad bars outside lines (adjusted prevalence ratio=5.38; 95% CI 4.04 to 7.17). Similarly, students at schools with salad bars inside the line had greater prevalence of consuming any F/V compared with students in schools with salad bars outside the line (adjusted prevalence ratio=4.83; 95% CI 3.40 to 6.81). On average, students with the salad bar outside the line wasted less F/V compared with those with salad bars inside the line (30% vs 48%, respectively). Conclusions: Few students visited salad bars located outside the lunch line. Salad bars inside the lunch line resulted in significantly greater fresh F/V taken, consumed, and wasted. When possible, schools should try to include salad bars inside the line to increase students' exposure to F/V.

AB - Background: The school lunch environment is a prime target for increasing a child's consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables (F/V). Salad bars are heavily encouraged in schools; however, more research is needed to examine the contexts in which salad bars promote consumption of F/V among students. Objective: To compare the amount of fresh F/V self-served, consumed, and wasted by students during lunch at schools with differing salad bar placement: inside or outside of the serving line. Design: Cross-sectional plate waste study in which salad bar placement differed between schools. Participants/setting: A random sample of middle school students (N=533) from six schools (three schools per district). Main outcome measures: Amount of fresh F/V taken, consumed, and wasted. Statistical analyses: Negative binomial multivariable regression examined placement of salad bars, adjusting for sex, grade, race/ethnicity, free/reduced status, day of the week, and nesting of students within schools. Results: Almost all students (98.6%) in the schools with salad bars inside serving lines self-served F/V compared with only 22.6% of students in the schools with salad bars outside lines (adjusted prevalence ratio=5.38; 95% CI 4.04 to 7.17). Similarly, students at schools with salad bars inside the line had greater prevalence of consuming any F/V compared with students in schools with salad bars outside the line (adjusted prevalence ratio=4.83; 95% CI 3.40 to 6.81). On average, students with the salad bar outside the line wasted less F/V compared with those with salad bars inside the line (30% vs 48%, respectively). Conclusions: Few students visited salad bars located outside the lunch line. Salad bars inside the lunch line resulted in significantly greater fresh F/V taken, consumed, and wasted. When possible, schools should try to include salad bars inside the line to increase students' exposure to F/V.

KW - Children

KW - Fruit and vegetable intake

KW - School lunch

KW - Students

KW - Waste

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