This paper introduces dynamic source multicast (DSM), a new protocol for multi-hop wireless (i.e., ad hoc) networks for the multicast of a data packet from a source node to a group of mobile nodes in the network. The protocol assumes that, through the use of positioning system devices, each node knows its own geographic location and the current (global) time, and it is able to efficiently spread these measures to all other nodes. When a packet is to be multicast, the source node first locally computes a snapshot of the complete network topology from the collected node measures. A Steiner (i.e., multicast) tree for the addressed multicast group is then computed locally based on the snapshot, rather than maintained in a distributed manner. The resulting Steiner tree is then optimally encoded by using its unique Prüfer sequence and is included in the packet header as in, and extending the length of the header by no more than, the header of packets in source routing (unicast) techniques. We show that all the local computations are executed in polynomial time. More specifically, the time complexity of the local operation of finding a Steiner tree, and the encoding/decoding procedures of the related Prüfer sequence, is proven to be O(n2), where n is the number of nodes in the network. The protocol has been simulated in ad hoc networks with 30 and 60 nodes and with different multicast group sizes. We show that DSM delivers packets to all the nodes in a destination group in more than 90% of the cases. Furthermore, compared to flooding, DSM achieves improvements of up to 50% on multicast completion delay.
- Global positioning system
- Mobile ad hoc networks
- Multicast routing
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Networks and Communications