Location analysis represents a fundamental component of regional science. It concerns the organization or arrangement of goods, resources, services, activities or movements in space. Location analysis has been widely used to describe/understand certain spatial configurations or to prescribe the best/optimal locations for service provision, resource management, business decisions, etc. Building on the pioneering work of Christaller, von Thünen, Lösch, Weber and Hotelling, location analysis has engaged researchers and analysts both theoretically and empirically, and continues to be relevant and influential in regional science, geography, planning, and economics. This chapter provides a review of location analysis and representative models and applications. We highlight recent developments in modeling frameworks contributing to the increased visibility and relevance of location analysis across a wide range of fields. We conclude with anticipated research directions and potential challenges associated with big spatial data and other emerging applications.