Cementitious binders amenable to extrusion-based 3D printing are formulated by tailoring the fresh microstructure through the use of fine limestone powder or a combination of limestone powder and microsilica or metakaolin. Mixtures are proportioned with and without a superplasticizer to enable different particle packings at similar printability levels. A simple microstructural parameter, which implicitly accounts for the solid volume and inverse square dependence of particle size on yield stress can be used to select preliminary material combinations for printable binders. The influence of composition/microstructure on the response of pastes to extension or squeezing are also brought out. Extrusion rheology is used in conjunction with a phenomenological model to better understand the properties of significance in extrusion-based printing of cementitious materials. The extrusion yield stress and die wall slip shear stress extracted from the model enables an understanding of their relationships with the fresh paste microstructure, which are crucial in selecting binders, extrusion geometry, and processing parameters for 3D printing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3951-3964
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2019


  • 3D printing
  • extrusion
  • microstructure
  • rheology
  • wall shear stress
  • yield stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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