Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular complications. In this paper, we examine the possible beneficial role of lemon juice in dieting. Lemon extract (LE) has been proposed to improve serum insulin levels and decrease angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in mouse models. ACE is also a biomarker for sustained weight loss and ACE inhibitors improve insulin sensitivity in humans. Here, we show that LE impacts adipose tissue metabolism directly. In 3T3-L1 differentiated adipocyte cells, LE improved insulin sensitivity as evidenced by a 3.74 ± 0.54-fold increase in both pAKT and GLUT4 levels. LE also induced lipolysis as demonstrated by a 16.6 ± 1.2 fold-change in pHSL protein expression levels. ACE gene expression increased 12.0 ± 0.1 fold during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in the absence of LE, and treatment with LE decreased ACE gene expression by 80.1 ± 0.5% and protein expression by 55 ± 0.37%. We conclude that LE’s reduction of ACE expression causes increased insulin sensitivity and breakdown of lipids in adipocytes.
- 3T3-L1 adipocytes
- Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Nutrition and Dietetics