Carbon-based nanomaterials have been considered promising candidates to mimic certain structure and function of native extracellular matrix materials for tissue engineering. Significant progress has been made in fabricating carbon nanoparticle-incorporated cell culture substrates, but only a limited number of studies have been reported on the development of 3D tissue constructs using these nanomaterials. Here, a novel approach to engineer 3D multilayer constructs using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of cells separated with self-assembled graphene oxide (GO)-based thin films is presented. The GO-based structures are shown to serve as cell adhesive sheets that effectively facilitate the formation of multilayer cell constructs with interlayer connectivity. By controlling the amount of GO deposited in forming the thin films, the thickness of the multilayer tissue constructs could be tuned with high cell viability. Specifically, this approach could be useful for creating dense and tightly connected cardiac tissues through the co-culture of cardiomyocytes and other cell types. In this work, the fabrication of stand-alone multilayer cardiac tissues with strong spontaneous beating behavior and programmable pumping properties is demonstrated. Therefore, this LbL-based cell construct fabrication approach, utilizing GO thin films formed directly on cell surfaces, has great potential in engineering 3D tissue structures with improved organization, electrophysiological function, and mechanical integrity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics