JIT manufacturing: A survey of implementations in small and large U.S. manufacturers

Richard E. White, John N. Pearson, Jeffrey Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

280 Scopus citations


Since the early 1980s, the diffusion of Just-In-Time (JIT) manufacturing from Japanese manufacturers to U.S. manufacturers has progressed at an accelerated rate. At this stage of the diffusion process, JIT implementations are more common and more advanced in large U.S. manufacturers than in small; consequently, U.S. businessmen's understanding of issues associated with JIT implementations in large manufacturers is more developed than that of small manufacturers. When small manufacturers represent about 96 percent of all U.S. manufacturers, investigation of JIT implementations in small, as well as large, manufacturers is warranted. This survey study investigates JIT implementation differences between small and large U.S. manufacturers. Ten management practices that constitute the JIT concept are used to examine implementation of JIT manufacturing systems. Odds ratio were constructed to determine if an association exists between implemented versus not implemented and manufacturer size for each JIT practice. Ten changes in performance attributed to JIT implementation are also assessed and examined in the study. Logistic regression models are used to examine the relationships between implementation status of each of the JIT practices and of each of the changes in performance in small and large manufacturers. The results of the study show that the frequencies of the 10 JIT management practices implemented differ between the two groups of manufacturer size, and an association exists between the JIT practices implemented and manufacturer size. Moreover, the changes in performance attributed to JIT implementation vary, depending on implementation status of specific JIT management practices and manufacturer size.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalManagement Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1999


  • Empirical Study
  • Just-in-time Manufacturing
  • Logistic Regression
  • Manufacturer Size
  • Performance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Strategy and Management
  • Management Science and Operations Research

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