The evolution during silicon solar cell processing of performance-limiting iron impurities is investigated with synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy. We find that during industrial phosphorus diffusion, bulk precipitate dissolution is incomplete in wafers with high metal content, specifically ingot border material. Postdiffusion low-temperature annealing is not found to alter appreciably the size or spatial distribution of FeSi 2 precipitates, although cell efficiency improves due to a decrease in iron interstitial concentration. Gettering simulations successfully model experiment results and suggest the efficacy of high- and low-temperature processing to reduce both precipitated and interstitial iron concentrations, respectively.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)