Iron distribution in silicon after solar cell processing: Synchrotron analysis and predictive modeling

D. P. Fenning, J. Hofstetter, M. I. Bertoni, S. Hudelson, M. Rinio, J. F. Lelìvre, B. Lai, C. Del Caizo, T. Buonassisi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations

Abstract

The evolution during silicon solar cell processing of performance-limiting iron impurities is investigated with synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence microscopy. We find that during industrial phosphorus diffusion, bulk precipitate dissolution is incomplete in wafers with high metal content, specifically ingot border material. Postdiffusion low-temperature annealing is not found to alter appreciably the size or spatial distribution of FeSi 2 precipitates, although cell efficiency improves due to a decrease in iron interstitial concentration. Gettering simulations successfully model experiment results and suggest the efficacy of high- and low-temperature processing to reduce both precipitated and interstitial iron concentrations, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number162103
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Volume98
Issue number16
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 18 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)

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