Ion-exchange regeneration efficiency and life cycle environmental impacts

Treavor Boyer, Gabriel Maul, Qiong Zhang, Youngwoon Kim

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

The regeneration efficiency, cost, life cycle impacts, and disposal implications of ion exchange (IX) regeneration using NaCl, NaHCO3, KCl, and KHCO3 salts were compared. In regeneration jar tests, chloride regeneration efficiency was higher for polystyrene anion exchange resin, while bicarbonate regeneration efficiency was higher for polyacrylic anion exchange resin. Potassium regeneration efficiency was higher than sodium regeneration efficiency for all cation exchange resins tested. NaHCO3 and KCl are approximately 5 to 10 times more expensive than NaCl, and NaHCO3 and KCl generally had higher environmental impacts than NaCl depending on the impact category. However, there are potential benefits of NaHCO3 and KCl over NaCl in terms of disposal that may offset the higher costs and life cycle impacts. NaHCO3 regenerant could offset costs used to address high corrosion potential in distribution systems and household plumbing, chronically acidified receiving waters, and wastewater nitrification limited by low alkalinity. KCl regenerant could offset costs for agricultural potassium inputs at a lower required dilution than NaCl based on impacts to hydraulic conductivity and plant nutrient requirements. KHCO 3 is not recommended as an IX regenerant due to its cost, which is ∼25 times higher than NaCl, high environmental impacts, and no further benefits over NaHCO3 or KCl in terms of disposal.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2013 Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, WQTC 2013
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes
Event2013 Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, WQTC 2013 - Long Beach, CA, United States
Duration: Nov 3 2013Nov 7 2013

Other

Other2013 Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, WQTC 2013
CountryUnited States
CityLong Beach, CA
Period11/3/1311/7/13

Fingerprint

ion exchange
environmental impact
life cycle
regeneration
resin
cost
potassium
bicarbonate
distribution system
alkalinity
nitrification
hydraulic conductivity
corrosion
dilution
chloride
sodium
salt
wastewater
nutrient
water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology

Cite this

Boyer, T., Maul, G., Zhang, Q., & Kim, Y. (2013). Ion-exchange regeneration efficiency and life cycle environmental impacts. In 2013 Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, WQTC 2013

Ion-exchange regeneration efficiency and life cycle environmental impacts. / Boyer, Treavor; Maul, Gabriel; Zhang, Qiong; Kim, Youngwoon.

2013 Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, WQTC 2013. 2013.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Boyer, T, Maul, G, Zhang, Q & Kim, Y 2013, Ion-exchange regeneration efficiency and life cycle environmental impacts. in 2013 Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, WQTC 2013. 2013 Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, WQTC 2013, Long Beach, CA, United States, 11/3/13.
Boyer T, Maul G, Zhang Q, Kim Y. Ion-exchange regeneration efficiency and life cycle environmental impacts. In 2013 Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, WQTC 2013. 2013
Boyer, Treavor ; Maul, Gabriel ; Zhang, Qiong ; Kim, Youngwoon. / Ion-exchange regeneration efficiency and life cycle environmental impacts. 2013 Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, WQTC 2013. 2013.
@inproceedings{ed87b0ba743d478c9d0e24dc275babba,
title = "Ion-exchange regeneration efficiency and life cycle environmental impacts",
abstract = "The regeneration efficiency, cost, life cycle impacts, and disposal implications of ion exchange (IX) regeneration using NaCl, NaHCO3, KCl, and KHCO3 salts were compared. In regeneration jar tests, chloride regeneration efficiency was higher for polystyrene anion exchange resin, while bicarbonate regeneration efficiency was higher for polyacrylic anion exchange resin. Potassium regeneration efficiency was higher than sodium regeneration efficiency for all cation exchange resins tested. NaHCO3 and KCl are approximately 5 to 10 times more expensive than NaCl, and NaHCO3 and KCl generally had higher environmental impacts than NaCl depending on the impact category. However, there are potential benefits of NaHCO3 and KCl over NaCl in terms of disposal that may offset the higher costs and life cycle impacts. NaHCO3 regenerant could offset costs used to address high corrosion potential in distribution systems and household plumbing, chronically acidified receiving waters, and wastewater nitrification limited by low alkalinity. KCl regenerant could offset costs for agricultural potassium inputs at a lower required dilution than NaCl based on impacts to hydraulic conductivity and plant nutrient requirements. KHCO 3 is not recommended as an IX regenerant due to its cost, which is ∼25 times higher than NaCl, high environmental impacts, and no further benefits over NaHCO3 or KCl in terms of disposal.",
author = "Treavor Boyer and Gabriel Maul and Qiong Zhang and Youngwoon Kim",
year = "2013",
language = "English (US)",
booktitle = "2013 Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, WQTC 2013",

}

TY - GEN

T1 - Ion-exchange regeneration efficiency and life cycle environmental impacts

AU - Boyer, Treavor

AU - Maul, Gabriel

AU - Zhang, Qiong

AU - Kim, Youngwoon

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - The regeneration efficiency, cost, life cycle impacts, and disposal implications of ion exchange (IX) regeneration using NaCl, NaHCO3, KCl, and KHCO3 salts were compared. In regeneration jar tests, chloride regeneration efficiency was higher for polystyrene anion exchange resin, while bicarbonate regeneration efficiency was higher for polyacrylic anion exchange resin. Potassium regeneration efficiency was higher than sodium regeneration efficiency for all cation exchange resins tested. NaHCO3 and KCl are approximately 5 to 10 times more expensive than NaCl, and NaHCO3 and KCl generally had higher environmental impacts than NaCl depending on the impact category. However, there are potential benefits of NaHCO3 and KCl over NaCl in terms of disposal that may offset the higher costs and life cycle impacts. NaHCO3 regenerant could offset costs used to address high corrosion potential in distribution systems and household plumbing, chronically acidified receiving waters, and wastewater nitrification limited by low alkalinity. KCl regenerant could offset costs for agricultural potassium inputs at a lower required dilution than NaCl based on impacts to hydraulic conductivity and plant nutrient requirements. KHCO 3 is not recommended as an IX regenerant due to its cost, which is ∼25 times higher than NaCl, high environmental impacts, and no further benefits over NaHCO3 or KCl in terms of disposal.

AB - The regeneration efficiency, cost, life cycle impacts, and disposal implications of ion exchange (IX) regeneration using NaCl, NaHCO3, KCl, and KHCO3 salts were compared. In regeneration jar tests, chloride regeneration efficiency was higher for polystyrene anion exchange resin, while bicarbonate regeneration efficiency was higher for polyacrylic anion exchange resin. Potassium regeneration efficiency was higher than sodium regeneration efficiency for all cation exchange resins tested. NaHCO3 and KCl are approximately 5 to 10 times more expensive than NaCl, and NaHCO3 and KCl generally had higher environmental impacts than NaCl depending on the impact category. However, there are potential benefits of NaHCO3 and KCl over NaCl in terms of disposal that may offset the higher costs and life cycle impacts. NaHCO3 regenerant could offset costs used to address high corrosion potential in distribution systems and household plumbing, chronically acidified receiving waters, and wastewater nitrification limited by low alkalinity. KCl regenerant could offset costs for agricultural potassium inputs at a lower required dilution than NaCl based on impacts to hydraulic conductivity and plant nutrient requirements. KHCO 3 is not recommended as an IX regenerant due to its cost, which is ∼25 times higher than NaCl, high environmental impacts, and no further benefits over NaHCO3 or KCl in terms of disposal.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84890464403&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84890464403&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Conference contribution

AN - SCOPUS:84890464403

BT - 2013 Water Quality Technology Conference and Exposition, WQTC 2013

ER -