Intracellular recordings of action potentials by an extracellular nanoscale field-effect transistor

Xiaojie Duan, Ruixuan Gao, Ping Xie, Tzahi Cohen-Karni, Quan Qing, Hwan Sung Choe, Bozhi Tian, Xiaocheng Jiang, Charles M. Lieber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

261 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The ability to make electrical measurements inside cells has led to many important advances in electrophysiology. The patch clamp technique, in which a glass micropipette filled with electrolyte is inserted into a cell, offers both high signal-to-noise ratio and temporal resolution. Ideally, the micropipette should be as small as possible to increase the spatial resolution and reduce the invasiveness of the measurement, but the overall performance of the technique depends on the impedance of the interface between the micropipette and the cell interior, which limits how small the micropipette can be. Techniques that involve inserting metal or carbon microelectrodes into cells are subject to similar constraints. Field-effect transistors (FETs) can also record electric potentials inside cells, and because their performance does not depend on impedance, they can be made much smaller than micropipettes and microelectrodes. Moreover, FET arrays are better suited for multiplexed measurements. Previously, we have demonstrated FET-based intracellular recording with kinked nanowire structures, but the kink configuration and device design places limits on the probe size and the potential for multiplexing. Here, we report a new approach in which a SiO 2 nanotube is synthetically integrated on top of a nanoscale FET. This nanotube penetrates the cell membrane, bringing the cell cytosol into contact with the FET, which is then able to record the intracellular transmembrane potential. Simulations show that the bandwidth of this branched intracellular nanotube FET (BIT-FET) is high enough for it to record fast action potentials even when the nanotube diameter is decreased to 3 nm, a length scale well below that accessible with other methods. Studies of cardiomyocyte cells demonstrate that when phospholipid-modified BIT-FETs are brought close to cells, the nanotubes can spontaneously penetrate the cell membrane to allow the full-amplitude intracellular action potential to be recorded, thus showing that a stable and tight seal forms between the nanotube and cell membrane. We also show that multiple BIT-FETs can record multiplexed intracellular signals from both single cells and networks of cells.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)174-179
Number of pages6
JournalNature Nanotechnology
Volume7
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2012
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Field effect transistors
field effect transistors
recording
Nanotubes
cells
nanotubes
Cell membranes
Microelectrodes
Electrophysiology
electrophysiology
impedance
Phospholipids
Clamping devices
Multiplexing
clamps
Electrolytes
Nanowires
Seals
Signal to noise ratio
temporal resolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

Cite this

Intracellular recordings of action potentials by an extracellular nanoscale field-effect transistor. / Duan, Xiaojie; Gao, Ruixuan; Xie, Ping; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Qing, Quan; Choe, Hwan Sung; Tian, Bozhi; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Lieber, Charles M.

In: Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 7, No. 3, 03.2012, p. 174-179.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Duan, X, Gao, R, Xie, P, Cohen-Karni, T, Qing, Q, Choe, HS, Tian, B, Jiang, X & Lieber, CM 2012, 'Intracellular recordings of action potentials by an extracellular nanoscale field-effect transistor', Nature Nanotechnology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 174-179. https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2011.223
Duan, Xiaojie ; Gao, Ruixuan ; Xie, Ping ; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi ; Qing, Quan ; Choe, Hwan Sung ; Tian, Bozhi ; Jiang, Xiaocheng ; Lieber, Charles M. / Intracellular recordings of action potentials by an extracellular nanoscale field-effect transistor. In: Nature Nanotechnology. 2012 ; Vol. 7, No. 3. pp. 174-179.
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