International physical activity questionnaire: 12-Country reliability and validity

Cora L. Craig, Alison L. Marshall, Michael Sjöström, Adrian E. Bauman, Michael L. Booth, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Michael Pratt, Ulf Ekelund, Agneta Yngve, James F. Sallis, Pekka Oja

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9285 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Physical inactivity is a global concern, but diverse physical activity measures in use prevent international comparisons. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was developed as an instrument for cross-national monitoring of physical activity and inactivity. Methods: Between 1997 and 1998, an International Consensus Group developed four long and four short forms of the IPAQ instruments (administered by telephone interview or self-administration, with two alternate reference periods, either the "last 7 d" or a "usual week" of recalled physical activity). During 2000, 14 centers from 12 countries collected reliability and/or validity data on at least two of the eight IPAQ instruments. Test-retest repeatability was assessed within the same week. Concurrent (inter-method) validity was assessed at the same administration, and criterion IPAQ validity was assessed against the CSA (now MTI) accelerometer. Spearman's correlation coefficients are reported, based on the total reported physical activity. Results: Overall, the IPAQ questionnaires produced repeatable data (Spearman's p clustered around 0.8), with comparable data from short and long forms. Criterion validity had a median p of about 0.30, which was comparable to most other self-report validation studies. The "usual week" and "last 7 d" reference periods performed similarly, and the reliability of telephone administration was similar to the self-administered mode. Conclusions: The IPAQ instruments have acceptable measurement properties, at least as good as other established self-reports. Considering the diverse samples in this study, IPAQ has reasonable measurement properties for monitoring population levels of physical activity among 18- to 65-yr-old adults in diverse settings. The short IPAQ form "last 7 d recall" is recommended for national monitoring and the long form for research requiring more detailed assessment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1381-1395
Number of pages15
JournalMedicine and science in sports and exercise
Volume35
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2003

Keywords

  • Epidemiology
  • Measurement
  • Surveillance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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