Intakes of vitamin C, vegetables and fruits: Which schoolchildren are at risk?

Jeffrey S. Hampl, Christopher A. Taylor, Carol Johnston

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine vitamin C intakes among American schoolchildren. We investigated the leading sources of vitamin C in children's diets, the leading vegetables and fruits consumed by children and differences in dietary intake associated with vitamin C consumption. Methods: Data from 1,350 7- to 12-year-old and 908 13- to 18-year-old schoolchildren were obtained from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The children were stratified by age and gender and then split into three vitamin C consumption groups based upon two 24-hour recalls: low (0 to 30.0 mg), marginal (30.1 to 59.9 mg), and desirable (>60.0 mg). Data were analyzed by tabulation and by ANOVA followed by post hoc Scheffe's test. Outcome measures included food groups and energy- adjusted intakes of micro- and macronutrients. Results: Among the 7- to 12- year-olds, 12% of boys and 13% of girls had mean vitamin C intakes that were less than 30 mg/day, and, among 13- to 18-year-olds, 14% of boys and 20% of girls had low vitamin C intakes. In addition to consuming significantly more vitamin C, children with desirable vitamin C intakes also consumed significantly more (p <0.001) energy-adjusted folate and vitamin B6; children with low vitamin C intakes tended to have significantly greater (p <0.001) energy-adjusted intakes of fat and saturated fat. Children with desirable vitamin C intakes consumed significantly more (p <0.006) high- vitamin C fruit juice, low-vitamin C vegetables and whole milk. Children with low vitamin C intakes on average consumed two daily servings of vegetables and fruits, of which less than 1/5 of a serving was citrus, while children with desirable vitamin C intakes consumed an average of one daily serving of citrus. Conclusions: A considerable number of children drastically under- consumed vitamin C and total vegetables and fruitS. Overall, children with desirable vitamin C intakes had healthier diets, including more milk and vegetables, than did their peers with low vitamin C intakes. Health care professionals should continue to promote at least five daily servings of vegetables and fruits and should advise parents that at least one of these should be rich in vitamin C.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)582-590
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American College of Nutrition
Volume18
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1999

Fingerprint

school children
Vegetables
Ascorbic Acid
Fruit
ascorbic acid
vegetables
fruits
Citrus
Energy Intake
Milk
Fats
Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals
Vitamin B 6
Micronutrients
whole milk
healthy diet
food groups
energy
fruit juices
pyridoxine

Keywords

  • Children
  • Diet
  • Food consumption surveys
  • Vitamin C

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

Cite this

Intakes of vitamin C, vegetables and fruits : Which schoolchildren are at risk? / Hampl, Jeffrey S.; Taylor, Christopher A.; Johnston, Carol.

In: Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 18, No. 6, 1999, p. 582-590.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{e956bfa1328549a8a2ef9609371742fc,
title = "Intakes of vitamin C, vegetables and fruits: Which schoolchildren are at risk?",
abstract = "Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine vitamin C intakes among American schoolchildren. We investigated the leading sources of vitamin C in children's diets, the leading vegetables and fruits consumed by children and differences in dietary intake associated with vitamin C consumption. Methods: Data from 1,350 7- to 12-year-old and 908 13- to 18-year-old schoolchildren were obtained from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The children were stratified by age and gender and then split into three vitamin C consumption groups based upon two 24-hour recalls: low (0 to 30.0 mg), marginal (30.1 to 59.9 mg), and desirable (>60.0 mg). Data were analyzed by tabulation and by ANOVA followed by post hoc Scheffe's test. Outcome measures included food groups and energy- adjusted intakes of micro- and macronutrients. Results: Among the 7- to 12- year-olds, 12{\%} of boys and 13{\%} of girls had mean vitamin C intakes that were less than 30 mg/day, and, among 13- to 18-year-olds, 14{\%} of boys and 20{\%} of girls had low vitamin C intakes. In addition to consuming significantly more vitamin C, children with desirable vitamin C intakes also consumed significantly more (p <0.001) energy-adjusted folate and vitamin B6; children with low vitamin C intakes tended to have significantly greater (p <0.001) energy-adjusted intakes of fat and saturated fat. Children with desirable vitamin C intakes consumed significantly more (p <0.006) high- vitamin C fruit juice, low-vitamin C vegetables and whole milk. Children with low vitamin C intakes on average consumed two daily servings of vegetables and fruits, of which less than 1/5 of a serving was citrus, while children with desirable vitamin C intakes consumed an average of one daily serving of citrus. Conclusions: A considerable number of children drastically under- consumed vitamin C and total vegetables and fruitS. Overall, children with desirable vitamin C intakes had healthier diets, including more milk and vegetables, than did their peers with low vitamin C intakes. Health care professionals should continue to promote at least five daily servings of vegetables and fruits and should advise parents that at least one of these should be rich in vitamin C.",
keywords = "Children, Diet, Food consumption surveys, Vitamin C",
author = "Hampl, {Jeffrey S.} and Taylor, {Christopher A.} and Carol Johnston",
year = "1999",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "18",
pages = "582--590",
journal = "Journal of the American College of Nutrition",
issn = "0731-5724",
publisher = "American College Of Nutrition",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Intakes of vitamin C, vegetables and fruits

T2 - Which schoolchildren are at risk?

AU - Hampl, Jeffrey S.

AU - Taylor, Christopher A.

AU - Johnston, Carol

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine vitamin C intakes among American schoolchildren. We investigated the leading sources of vitamin C in children's diets, the leading vegetables and fruits consumed by children and differences in dietary intake associated with vitamin C consumption. Methods: Data from 1,350 7- to 12-year-old and 908 13- to 18-year-old schoolchildren were obtained from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The children were stratified by age and gender and then split into three vitamin C consumption groups based upon two 24-hour recalls: low (0 to 30.0 mg), marginal (30.1 to 59.9 mg), and desirable (>60.0 mg). Data were analyzed by tabulation and by ANOVA followed by post hoc Scheffe's test. Outcome measures included food groups and energy- adjusted intakes of micro- and macronutrients. Results: Among the 7- to 12- year-olds, 12% of boys and 13% of girls had mean vitamin C intakes that were less than 30 mg/day, and, among 13- to 18-year-olds, 14% of boys and 20% of girls had low vitamin C intakes. In addition to consuming significantly more vitamin C, children with desirable vitamin C intakes also consumed significantly more (p <0.001) energy-adjusted folate and vitamin B6; children with low vitamin C intakes tended to have significantly greater (p <0.001) energy-adjusted intakes of fat and saturated fat. Children with desirable vitamin C intakes consumed significantly more (p <0.006) high- vitamin C fruit juice, low-vitamin C vegetables and whole milk. Children with low vitamin C intakes on average consumed two daily servings of vegetables and fruits, of which less than 1/5 of a serving was citrus, while children with desirable vitamin C intakes consumed an average of one daily serving of citrus. Conclusions: A considerable number of children drastically under- consumed vitamin C and total vegetables and fruitS. Overall, children with desirable vitamin C intakes had healthier diets, including more milk and vegetables, than did their peers with low vitamin C intakes. Health care professionals should continue to promote at least five daily servings of vegetables and fruits and should advise parents that at least one of these should be rich in vitamin C.

AB - Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine vitamin C intakes among American schoolchildren. We investigated the leading sources of vitamin C in children's diets, the leading vegetables and fruits consumed by children and differences in dietary intake associated with vitamin C consumption. Methods: Data from 1,350 7- to 12-year-old and 908 13- to 18-year-old schoolchildren were obtained from the 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The children were stratified by age and gender and then split into three vitamin C consumption groups based upon two 24-hour recalls: low (0 to 30.0 mg), marginal (30.1 to 59.9 mg), and desirable (>60.0 mg). Data were analyzed by tabulation and by ANOVA followed by post hoc Scheffe's test. Outcome measures included food groups and energy- adjusted intakes of micro- and macronutrients. Results: Among the 7- to 12- year-olds, 12% of boys and 13% of girls had mean vitamin C intakes that were less than 30 mg/day, and, among 13- to 18-year-olds, 14% of boys and 20% of girls had low vitamin C intakes. In addition to consuming significantly more vitamin C, children with desirable vitamin C intakes also consumed significantly more (p <0.001) energy-adjusted folate and vitamin B6; children with low vitamin C intakes tended to have significantly greater (p <0.001) energy-adjusted intakes of fat and saturated fat. Children with desirable vitamin C intakes consumed significantly more (p <0.006) high- vitamin C fruit juice, low-vitamin C vegetables and whole milk. Children with low vitamin C intakes on average consumed two daily servings of vegetables and fruits, of which less than 1/5 of a serving was citrus, while children with desirable vitamin C intakes consumed an average of one daily serving of citrus. Conclusions: A considerable number of children drastically under- consumed vitamin C and total vegetables and fruitS. Overall, children with desirable vitamin C intakes had healthier diets, including more milk and vegetables, than did their peers with low vitamin C intakes. Health care professionals should continue to promote at least five daily servings of vegetables and fruits and should advise parents that at least one of these should be rich in vitamin C.

KW - Children

KW - Diet

KW - Food consumption surveys

KW - Vitamin C

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033406401&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033406401&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 10613409

AN - SCOPUS:0033406401

VL - 18

SP - 582

EP - 590

JO - Journal of the American College of Nutrition

JF - Journal of the American College of Nutrition

SN - 0731-5724

IS - 6

ER -