In order to examine first formant masking effects in hearing-impaired listeners, bay, day, and gay were synthesized with and without a first formant. The signals were presented at several levels. Removal of the first formant did not improve intelligibility at levels above, at, or below the point of maximum intelligibility. These results and others converge to suggest that masking spread from the first formant is not a significant factor in the identification of voiced stop consonants by listeners with sloping, mild-to-moderate hearing loss.
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