Increasing opportunities to respond for students with internalizing behaviors: The utility of choral and mixed responding

Mallory Messenger, Eric Alan Common, Kathleen Lynne Lane, Wendy Oakes, Holly Mariah Menzies, Emily D. Cantwell, Robin Parks Ennis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Increasing students’ opportunities to respond (OTR) is a low-intensity strategy effective in increasing engagement. Building on the work of Haydon and colleagues, we compared two types of OTR, choral and mixed (70% choral, 30% individual), to examine the utility of these strategies in increasing active student responding and accuracy during mathematics for two elementary-age students with internalizing behaviors. Results indicated the general education teacher implemented both OTR strategies with high fidelity with limited university support. However, results of this alternating treatment design were unable to distinguish either choral or mixed responding as superior to the other. Results suggested one student showed high active student responding with less than 80% accuracy, whereas the other student was highly accurate but responded less than 75% of the time. In the discussion, we highlight reasons why the two OTR strategies had similar effects on student outcomes, consider implications of these findings, and provide direction for future inquiry.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)170-184
Number of pages15
JournalBehavioral Disorders
Volume42
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2017

Keywords

  • Academic engagement
  • Low-intensity supports
  • Null result
  • Opportunities to respond

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology

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