Increased Waitlist Mortality and Lower Rate for Liver Transplantation in Hispanic Patients With Primary Biliary Cholangitis

George Cholankeril, Humberto C. Gonzalez, Sanjaya K. Satapathy, Stevan A. Gonzalez, Menghan Hu, Mohammad Ali Khan, Eric R. Yoo, Andrew A. Li, Donghee Kim, Satheesh Nair, Robert J. Wong, Paul Y. Kwo, Stephen A. Harrison, Zobair M. Younossi, Keith Lindor, Aijaz Ahmed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background & Aims: Data on the differences in ethnicity and race among patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) awaiting liver transplantation (LT) are limited. We evaluated liver transplant waitlist trends and outcomes based on ethnicity and race in patients with PBC in the United States. Methods: Using the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry, we collected data on patients with PBC on the liver transplant waitlist, and performed analysis with a focus on ethnicity and race-based variations clinical manifestations, waitlist mortality and LT rates from 2000 to 2014. Outcomes were adjusted for demographics, complications of portal hypertension, and Model for End-stage Liver Disease score at time of waitlist registration. Results: Although the number of white PBC waitlist registrants and additions decreased from 2000 to 2014, there were no significant changes in the number of Hispanic PBC waitlist registrants and additions each year. The proportion of Hispanic patients with PBC on the liver transplant waitlist increased from 10.7% in 2000 to 19.3% in 2014. Hispanics had the highest percentage of waitlist deaths (20.8%) of any ethnicity or race evaluated. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, Hispanic patients with PBC had the lowest overall rate for undergoing LT (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0. 60–0.83; P <.001) and a significantly higher risk of death while on the waitlist, compared to whites (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.15–1.74; P <.001). Furthermore, Hispanic patients with PBC had the highest proportion of waitlist removals due to clinical deterioration. Conclusions: In an analysis of data from UNOS registry focusing on outcomes, we observed differences in rates of LT and liver transplant waitlist mortality of Hispanic patients compared with white patients with PBC. Further studies are needed to improve our understanding of ethnicity and race-based differences in progression of PBC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)965-973.e2
JournalClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume16
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2018

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Cholangitis
Hispanic Americans
Liver Transplantation
Mortality
Transplants
Liver
Registries
Demography
End Stage Liver Disease
Portal Hypertension

Keywords

  • MELD
  • OPTN
  • PBC
  • UNOS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Increased Waitlist Mortality and Lower Rate for Liver Transplantation in Hispanic Patients With Primary Biliary Cholangitis. / Cholankeril, George; Gonzalez, Humberto C.; Satapathy, Sanjaya K.; Gonzalez, Stevan A.; Hu, Menghan; Khan, Mohammad Ali; Yoo, Eric R.; Li, Andrew A.; Kim, Donghee; Nair, Satheesh; Wong, Robert J.; Kwo, Paul Y.; Harrison, Stephen A.; Younossi, Zobair M.; Lindor, Keith; Ahmed, Aijaz.

In: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vol. 16, No. 6, 01.06.2018, p. 965-973.e2.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cholankeril, G, Gonzalez, HC, Satapathy, SK, Gonzalez, SA, Hu, M, Khan, MA, Yoo, ER, Li, AA, Kim, D, Nair, S, Wong, RJ, Kwo, PY, Harrison, SA, Younossi, ZM, Lindor, K & Ahmed, A 2018, 'Increased Waitlist Mortality and Lower Rate for Liver Transplantation in Hispanic Patients With Primary Biliary Cholangitis', Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 965-973.e2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2017.12.017
Cholankeril, George ; Gonzalez, Humberto C. ; Satapathy, Sanjaya K. ; Gonzalez, Stevan A. ; Hu, Menghan ; Khan, Mohammad Ali ; Yoo, Eric R. ; Li, Andrew A. ; Kim, Donghee ; Nair, Satheesh ; Wong, Robert J. ; Kwo, Paul Y. ; Harrison, Stephen A. ; Younossi, Zobair M. ; Lindor, Keith ; Ahmed, Aijaz. / Increased Waitlist Mortality and Lower Rate for Liver Transplantation in Hispanic Patients With Primary Biliary Cholangitis. In: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 2018 ; Vol. 16, No. 6. pp. 965-973.e2.
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abstract = "Background & Aims: Data on the differences in ethnicity and race among patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) awaiting liver transplantation (LT) are limited. We evaluated liver transplant waitlist trends and outcomes based on ethnicity and race in patients with PBC in the United States. Methods: Using the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry, we collected data on patients with PBC on the liver transplant waitlist, and performed analysis with a focus on ethnicity and race-based variations clinical manifestations, waitlist mortality and LT rates from 2000 to 2014. Outcomes were adjusted for demographics, complications of portal hypertension, and Model for End-stage Liver Disease score at time of waitlist registration. Results: Although the number of white PBC waitlist registrants and additions decreased from 2000 to 2014, there were no significant changes in the number of Hispanic PBC waitlist registrants and additions each year. The proportion of Hispanic patients with PBC on the liver transplant waitlist increased from 10.7{\%} in 2000 to 19.3{\%} in 2014. Hispanics had the highest percentage of waitlist deaths (20.8{\%}) of any ethnicity or race evaluated. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, Hispanic patients with PBC had the lowest overall rate for undergoing LT (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.71; 95{\%} CI, 0. 60–0.83; P <.001) and a significantly higher risk of death while on the waitlist, compared to whites (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.41; 95{\%} CI, 1.15–1.74; P <.001). Furthermore, Hispanic patients with PBC had the highest proportion of waitlist removals due to clinical deterioration. Conclusions: In an analysis of data from UNOS registry focusing on outcomes, we observed differences in rates of LT and liver transplant waitlist mortality of Hispanic patients compared with white patients with PBC. Further studies are needed to improve our understanding of ethnicity and race-based differences in progression of PBC.",
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AU - Gonzalez, Humberto C.

AU - Satapathy, Sanjaya K.

AU - Gonzalez, Stevan A.

AU - Hu, Menghan

AU - Khan, Mohammad Ali

AU - Yoo, Eric R.

AU - Li, Andrew A.

AU - Kim, Donghee

AU - Nair, Satheesh

AU - Wong, Robert J.

AU - Kwo, Paul Y.

AU - Harrison, Stephen A.

AU - Younossi, Zobair M.

AU - Lindor, Keith

AU - Ahmed, Aijaz

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N2 - Background & Aims: Data on the differences in ethnicity and race among patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) awaiting liver transplantation (LT) are limited. We evaluated liver transplant waitlist trends and outcomes based on ethnicity and race in patients with PBC in the United States. Methods: Using the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) registry, we collected data on patients with PBC on the liver transplant waitlist, and performed analysis with a focus on ethnicity and race-based variations clinical manifestations, waitlist mortality and LT rates from 2000 to 2014. Outcomes were adjusted for demographics, complications of portal hypertension, and Model for End-stage Liver Disease score at time of waitlist registration. Results: Although the number of white PBC waitlist registrants and additions decreased from 2000 to 2014, there were no significant changes in the number of Hispanic PBC waitlist registrants and additions each year. The proportion of Hispanic patients with PBC on the liver transplant waitlist increased from 10.7% in 2000 to 19.3% in 2014. Hispanics had the highest percentage of waitlist deaths (20.8%) of any ethnicity or race evaluated. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, Hispanic patients with PBC had the lowest overall rate for undergoing LT (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0. 60–0.83; P <.001) and a significantly higher risk of death while on the waitlist, compared to whites (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.15–1.74; P <.001). Furthermore, Hispanic patients with PBC had the highest proportion of waitlist removals due to clinical deterioration. Conclusions: In an analysis of data from UNOS registry focusing on outcomes, we observed differences in rates of LT and liver transplant waitlist mortality of Hispanic patients compared with white patients with PBC. Further studies are needed to improve our understanding of ethnicity and race-based differences in progression of PBC.

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