Increased Total Dissolved Solids, Chloride, and Bromide Concentrations Due to Sea-Level Rise in a Coastal Aquifer

Louis H. Motz, Jack Kurki-Fox, Evan C. Ged, Treavor Boyer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Rising sea levels can increase saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers, affecting well fields by contaminating groundwater with increased total dissolved solids (TDS) and chloride concentrations. A groundwater model was created for Broward County in southeastern Florida, U.S.A., to simulate the increased TDS and chloride concentrations in a coastal well field due to sea-level rise (SLR)-induced saltwater intrusion. The objectives of the modeling were to simulate the increase in TDS and chloride concentrations in a well field for a range of SLR scenarios and quantify the results with respect to secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) for TDS and chloride. Bromide concentrations were also simulated because bromide can form toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. SLR projections for the model were based on projections that follow the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change methodology in its Fourth Assessment Report, but they also include the effects of ice sheet melting in Greenland and Antarctica. These projections provide for three scenarios of SLR from 1990 to 2100, corresponding to 5%, 50%, and 95% confidence levels. These estimates were extrapolated as part of this investigation to obtain projections of 0.11 m, 0.49 m, and 0.91 m SLR for three 100-year simulations from 2015 to 2115. A three-dimensional numerical groundwater model was constructed using the variable-density groundwater flow and transport code SEAWAT, and simulations were run for three 100-year transient simulations with maximum sea-level rise values at the coastal boundaries corresponding to the 5%, 50%, and 95% confidence-level sea-level rise projections. Average TDS concentrations in 10 production wells were obtained from the SEAWAT results, and chloride and bromide concentrations were calculated using standard seawater ratios for chloride and bromide relative to TDS. The bromide concentrations were used to model the concentrations of four trihalomethane species (THM4) that represent DPBs that could be formed following chlorine addition during drinking water treatment. The results from the simulations indicate that the SMCLs for TDS and chloride, which are based on cosmetic and aesthetic effects, will be exceeded in approximately 65 years from the start of the SLR simulations at the 95% confidence level for SLR. Of even greater significance, the results also indicate that the primary maximum contaminant level for THM4, which is based on health effects, will be exceeded in approximately 30 years from the start of the SLR simulations at the 95% confidence level for SLR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationWorld Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2014: Water Without Borders - Proceedings of the 2014 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress
PublisherAmerican Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)
Pages272-281
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9780784413548
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes
EventWorld Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2014: Water Without Borders - Portland, United States
Duration: Jun 1 2014Jun 5 2014

Other

OtherWorld Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2014: Water Without Borders
CountryUnited States
CityPortland
Period6/1/146/5/14

Fingerprint

coastal aquifer
bromide
chloride
simulation
well
saline intrusion
groundwater
pollutant
sea level rise
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
esthetics
disinfection
groundwater flow
ice sheet
chlorine
melting
seawater

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology

Cite this

Motz, L. H., Kurki-Fox, J., Ged, E. C., & Boyer, T. (2014). Increased Total Dissolved Solids, Chloride, and Bromide Concentrations Due to Sea-Level Rise in a Coastal Aquifer. In World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2014: Water Without Borders - Proceedings of the 2014 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress (pp. 272-281). American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784413548.030

Increased Total Dissolved Solids, Chloride, and Bromide Concentrations Due to Sea-Level Rise in a Coastal Aquifer. / Motz, Louis H.; Kurki-Fox, Jack; Ged, Evan C.; Boyer, Treavor.

World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2014: Water Without Borders - Proceedings of the 2014 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2014. p. 272-281.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Motz, LH, Kurki-Fox, J, Ged, EC & Boyer, T 2014, Increased Total Dissolved Solids, Chloride, and Bromide Concentrations Due to Sea-Level Rise in a Coastal Aquifer. in World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2014: Water Without Borders - Proceedings of the 2014 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), pp. 272-281, World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2014: Water Without Borders, Portland, United States, 6/1/14. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784413548.030
Motz LH, Kurki-Fox J, Ged EC, Boyer T. Increased Total Dissolved Solids, Chloride, and Bromide Concentrations Due to Sea-Level Rise in a Coastal Aquifer. In World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2014: Water Without Borders - Proceedings of the 2014 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). 2014. p. 272-281 https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784413548.030
Motz, Louis H. ; Kurki-Fox, Jack ; Ged, Evan C. ; Boyer, Treavor. / Increased Total Dissolved Solids, Chloride, and Bromide Concentrations Due to Sea-Level Rise in a Coastal Aquifer. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2014: Water Without Borders - Proceedings of the 2014 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2014. pp. 272-281
@inproceedings{b34551f68b8748d89fa2eb26f45ab5c7,
title = "Increased Total Dissolved Solids, Chloride, and Bromide Concentrations Due to Sea-Level Rise in a Coastal Aquifer",
abstract = "Rising sea levels can increase saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers, affecting well fields by contaminating groundwater with increased total dissolved solids (TDS) and chloride concentrations. A groundwater model was created for Broward County in southeastern Florida, U.S.A., to simulate the increased TDS and chloride concentrations in a coastal well field due to sea-level rise (SLR)-induced saltwater intrusion. The objectives of the modeling were to simulate the increase in TDS and chloride concentrations in a well field for a range of SLR scenarios and quantify the results with respect to secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) for TDS and chloride. Bromide concentrations were also simulated because bromide can form toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. SLR projections for the model were based on projections that follow the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change methodology in its Fourth Assessment Report, but they also include the effects of ice sheet melting in Greenland and Antarctica. These projections provide for three scenarios of SLR from 1990 to 2100, corresponding to 5{\%}, 50{\%}, and 95{\%} confidence levels. These estimates were extrapolated as part of this investigation to obtain projections of 0.11 m, 0.49 m, and 0.91 m SLR for three 100-year simulations from 2015 to 2115. A three-dimensional numerical groundwater model was constructed using the variable-density groundwater flow and transport code SEAWAT, and simulations were run for three 100-year transient simulations with maximum sea-level rise values at the coastal boundaries corresponding to the 5{\%}, 50{\%}, and 95{\%} confidence-level sea-level rise projections. Average TDS concentrations in 10 production wells were obtained from the SEAWAT results, and chloride and bromide concentrations were calculated using standard seawater ratios for chloride and bromide relative to TDS. The bromide concentrations were used to model the concentrations of four trihalomethane species (THM4) that represent DPBs that could be formed following chlorine addition during drinking water treatment. The results from the simulations indicate that the SMCLs for TDS and chloride, which are based on cosmetic and aesthetic effects, will be exceeded in approximately 65 years from the start of the SLR simulations at the 95{\%} confidence level for SLR. Of even greater significance, the results also indicate that the primary maximum contaminant level for THM4, which is based on health effects, will be exceeded in approximately 30 years from the start of the SLR simulations at the 95{\%} confidence level for SLR.",
author = "Motz, {Louis H.} and Jack Kurki-Fox and Ged, {Evan C.} and Treavor Boyer",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1061/9780784413548.030",
language = "English (US)",
pages = "272--281",
booktitle = "World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2014: Water Without Borders - Proceedings of the 2014 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress",
publisher = "American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)",
address = "United States",

}

TY - GEN

T1 - Increased Total Dissolved Solids, Chloride, and Bromide Concentrations Due to Sea-Level Rise in a Coastal Aquifer

AU - Motz, Louis H.

AU - Kurki-Fox, Jack

AU - Ged, Evan C.

AU - Boyer, Treavor

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Rising sea levels can increase saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers, affecting well fields by contaminating groundwater with increased total dissolved solids (TDS) and chloride concentrations. A groundwater model was created for Broward County in southeastern Florida, U.S.A., to simulate the increased TDS and chloride concentrations in a coastal well field due to sea-level rise (SLR)-induced saltwater intrusion. The objectives of the modeling were to simulate the increase in TDS and chloride concentrations in a well field for a range of SLR scenarios and quantify the results with respect to secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) for TDS and chloride. Bromide concentrations were also simulated because bromide can form toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. SLR projections for the model were based on projections that follow the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change methodology in its Fourth Assessment Report, but they also include the effects of ice sheet melting in Greenland and Antarctica. These projections provide for three scenarios of SLR from 1990 to 2100, corresponding to 5%, 50%, and 95% confidence levels. These estimates were extrapolated as part of this investigation to obtain projections of 0.11 m, 0.49 m, and 0.91 m SLR for three 100-year simulations from 2015 to 2115. A three-dimensional numerical groundwater model was constructed using the variable-density groundwater flow and transport code SEAWAT, and simulations were run for three 100-year transient simulations with maximum sea-level rise values at the coastal boundaries corresponding to the 5%, 50%, and 95% confidence-level sea-level rise projections. Average TDS concentrations in 10 production wells were obtained from the SEAWAT results, and chloride and bromide concentrations were calculated using standard seawater ratios for chloride and bromide relative to TDS. The bromide concentrations were used to model the concentrations of four trihalomethane species (THM4) that represent DPBs that could be formed following chlorine addition during drinking water treatment. The results from the simulations indicate that the SMCLs for TDS and chloride, which are based on cosmetic and aesthetic effects, will be exceeded in approximately 65 years from the start of the SLR simulations at the 95% confidence level for SLR. Of even greater significance, the results also indicate that the primary maximum contaminant level for THM4, which is based on health effects, will be exceeded in approximately 30 years from the start of the SLR simulations at the 95% confidence level for SLR.

AB - Rising sea levels can increase saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers, affecting well fields by contaminating groundwater with increased total dissolved solids (TDS) and chloride concentrations. A groundwater model was created for Broward County in southeastern Florida, U.S.A., to simulate the increased TDS and chloride concentrations in a coastal well field due to sea-level rise (SLR)-induced saltwater intrusion. The objectives of the modeling were to simulate the increase in TDS and chloride concentrations in a well field for a range of SLR scenarios and quantify the results with respect to secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCLs) for TDS and chloride. Bromide concentrations were also simulated because bromide can form toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during drinking water treatment. SLR projections for the model were based on projections that follow the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change methodology in its Fourth Assessment Report, but they also include the effects of ice sheet melting in Greenland and Antarctica. These projections provide for three scenarios of SLR from 1990 to 2100, corresponding to 5%, 50%, and 95% confidence levels. These estimates were extrapolated as part of this investigation to obtain projections of 0.11 m, 0.49 m, and 0.91 m SLR for three 100-year simulations from 2015 to 2115. A three-dimensional numerical groundwater model was constructed using the variable-density groundwater flow and transport code SEAWAT, and simulations were run for three 100-year transient simulations with maximum sea-level rise values at the coastal boundaries corresponding to the 5%, 50%, and 95% confidence-level sea-level rise projections. Average TDS concentrations in 10 production wells were obtained from the SEAWAT results, and chloride and bromide concentrations were calculated using standard seawater ratios for chloride and bromide relative to TDS. The bromide concentrations were used to model the concentrations of four trihalomethane species (THM4) that represent DPBs that could be formed following chlorine addition during drinking water treatment. The results from the simulations indicate that the SMCLs for TDS and chloride, which are based on cosmetic and aesthetic effects, will be exceeded in approximately 65 years from the start of the SLR simulations at the 95% confidence level for SLR. Of even greater significance, the results also indicate that the primary maximum contaminant level for THM4, which is based on health effects, will be exceeded in approximately 30 years from the start of the SLR simulations at the 95% confidence level for SLR.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84935426190&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84935426190&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1061/9780784413548.030

DO - 10.1061/9780784413548.030

M3 - Conference contribution

AN - SCOPUS:84935426190

SP - 272

EP - 281

BT - World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2014: Water Without Borders - Proceedings of the 2014 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress

PB - American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)

ER -