In two species, females exhibit superior working memory and inferior reference memory on the water radial-arm maze

Heather A. Bimonte, Lynn A. Hyde, Blair J. Hoplight, Victor H. Denenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

88 Scopus citations


Male and female mice and rats were tested on a water escape version of the radial-arm maze designed to measure working and reference memory. In both species, females exhibited superior working memory during acquisition, and were better able to handle a higher memory load. However, male mice and rats exhibited better reference memory than females during the asymptotic portion of testing. Our data suggest that females may be better at working memory when both working and reference memory information must be learned simultaneously, and males better at reference memory when it has been differentiated from working memory. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Inc.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)311-317
Number of pages7
JournalPhysiology and Behavior
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - Jan 1 2000



  • Mouse
  • Radial-arm maze
  • Rat
  • Reference memory
  • Sex differences
  • Working memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

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