In situ photoelectron spectroscopic characterization of c-BN films deposited via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition employing fluorine chemistry

Joseph Shammas, Tianyin Sun, Franz A M Koeck, Aram Rezikyan, Robert Nemanich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) was deposited on silicon substrates using electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (ECR MPCVD) employing Ar-He-N<inf>2</inf>-H<inf>2</inf>-BF<inf>3</inf> gas precursors at 780 °C. In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements indicated that c-BN nucleated and grew on a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer that initially formed on the substrate. The minimum and maximum bias applied to the sample that yielded c-BN growth was investigated by in situ XPS. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), elastic recoil detection (ERD), and XPS were employed to determine the chemical composition of the produced films, while XPS and in situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) were employed to investigate the electronic structure of film surfaces. The bandgap of the c-BN films was estimated to be 6.2 ± 0.2 eV from XPS measurements. In situ UPS measurements indicated that as-deposited c-BN films exhibited a negative electron affinity (NEA). The surface continued to exhibit an NEA after H<inf>2</inf> plasma treatment performed at 650°C and annealing at 780°C. Analysis of surface bonding using a surface dipole model suggests that H-terminated N surface sites could be responsible for the observed NEA character.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13-22
Number of pages10
JournalDiamond and Related Materials
Volume56
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2015

Fingerprint

Cubic boron nitride
Fluorine
boron nitrides
Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition
Photoelectrons
fluorine
photoelectrons
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Electron affinity
photoelectron spectroscopy
vapor deposition
chemistry
negative electron affinity
Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy
ultraviolet spectroscopy
x rays
Plasmas
Infrared transmission
Electron cyclotron resonance
Boron nitride

Keywords

  • Bias growth
  • Cubic boron nitride (c-BN)
  • Electron affinity
  • Plasma CVD
  • Surface electronic properties
  • Work function

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

In situ photoelectron spectroscopic characterization of c-BN films deposited via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition employing fluorine chemistry. / Shammas, Joseph; Sun, Tianyin; Koeck, Franz A M; Rezikyan, Aram; Nemanich, Robert.

In: Diamond and Related Materials, Vol. 56, 01.06.2015, p. 13-22.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AB - Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) was deposited on silicon substrates using electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (ECR MPCVD) employing Ar-He-N2-H2-BF3 gas precursors at 780 °C. In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements indicated that c-BN nucleated and grew on a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layer that initially formed on the substrate. The minimum and maximum bias applied to the sample that yielded c-BN growth was investigated by in situ XPS. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), elastic recoil detection (ERD), and XPS were employed to determine the chemical composition of the produced films, while XPS and in situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) were employed to investigate the electronic structure of film surfaces. The bandgap of the c-BN films was estimated to be 6.2 ± 0.2 eV from XPS measurements. In situ UPS measurements indicated that as-deposited c-BN films exhibited a negative electron affinity (NEA). The surface continued to exhibit an NEA after H2 plasma treatment performed at 650°C and annealing at 780°C. Analysis of surface bonding using a surface dipole model suggests that H-terminated N surface sites could be responsible for the observed NEA character.

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