In search of the Primitive-Urban continuum: The Dimensional Structure of Outdoor Recreation Settings

Daniel R. Williams, Richard C. Knopf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

A primitive-urban continuum has been a dominant feature of the psychological representation of large-scale environments and the basis of land classification systems for outdoor recreation planning. The ubiquity of the primitive-urban continuum is examined with respect to experiential (as opposed to perceptual) variation in outdoor recreation settings. A multidimensional scaling analysis of 42 rivers was conducted using reported recreation experiences as proximity measures. Two interpretable dimensions were revealed. Waterflow intensity (whitewater) and trip duration were more strongly associated with experiential variation across river settings than the primitive-urban continuum.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)351-370
Number of pages20
JournalEnvironment and Behavior
Volume17
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1985
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)

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