Improving the early literacy skills of students at risk for internalizing or externalizing behaviors with limited reading skills

Pamela Harris, Wendy Oakes, Kathleen Lynne Lane, Robert B. Rutherford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Scopus citations


Eight first-grade students with either internalizing or externalizing behavioral risk factors participated in a supplemental reading intervention for 30 min per day. The intervention package consisted of three main components: instruction in word recognition, fluency, and appropriate behavior. A multiple-baseline design was employed to assess intervention effectiveness using weekly Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills Oral Reading Fluency probes and monthly Nonsense Word Fluency probes. Results indicated improvements in early literacy skills for all participants, and response to treatment did not vary by behavioral risk type. Both students with externalizing and internalizing behavioral challenges benefited. Social validity ratings were favorable. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)72-90
Number of pages19
JournalBehavioral Disorders
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2009


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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