Implicit Versus Explicit Learning of Strategies in a Non-procedural Cognitive Skill

Kurt Vanlehn, D. B. Dumiszewe Bhembe, Min Chi, Collin Lynch, Kay Schulze, Robert Shelby, Linwood Taylor, Don Treacy, Anders Weinstein, Mary Wintersgill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


University physics is typical of many cognitive skills in that there is no standard procedure for solving problems, and yet a few students still master the skill. This suggests that their learning of problem solving strategies is implicit, and that an effective tutoring system need not teach problem solving strategies as explicitly as model-tracing tutors do. In order to compare implicit vs. explicit learning of problem solving strategies, we developed two physics tutoring systems, Andes and Pyrenees. Pyrenees is a model-tracing tutor that teaches a problem solving strategy explicitly, whereas Andes uses a novel pedagogy, developed over many years of use in the field, that provides virtually no explicit strategic instruction. Preliminary results from an experiment comparing the two systems are reported.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)521-530
Number of pages10
JournalLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
StatePublished - Dec 1 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)


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