Impartial Institutions, Pathogen Stress and the Expanding Social Network

Daniel Hruschka, Charles Efferson, Ting Jiang, Ashlan Falletta-Cowden, Sveinn Sigurdsson, Rita McNamara, Madeline Sands, Shirajum Munira, Edward Slingerland, Joseph Henrich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

39 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Anthropologists have documented substantial cross-society variation in people’s willingness to treat strangers with impartial, universal norms versus favoring members of their local community. Researchers have proposed several adaptive accounts for these differences. One variant of the pathogen stress hypothesis predicts that people will be more likely to favor local in-group members when they are under greater infectious disease threat. The material security hypothesis instead proposes that institutions that permit people to meet their basic needs through impartial interactions with strangers reinforce a tendency toward impartiality, whereas people lacking such institutions must rely on local community members to meet their basic needs. Some studies have examined these hypotheses using self-reported preferences, but not with behavioral measures. We conducted behavioral experiments in eight diverse societies that measure individuals’ willingness to favor in-group members by ignoring an impartial rule. Consistent with the material security hypothesis, members of societies enjoying better-quality government services and food security show a stronger preference for following an impartial rule over investing in their local in-group. Our data show no support for the pathogen stress hypothesis as applied to favoring in-groups and instead suggest that favoring in-group members more closely reflects a general adaptive fit with social institutions that have arisen in each society.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)567-579
Number of pages13
JournalHuman Nature
Volume25
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 6 2014

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social networks
social network
pathogen
basic needs
pathogens
group membership
basic need
infectious disease
food security
infectious diseases
social institution
society
researchers
community
contagious disease
Group
Social Networks
threat
food
experiment

Keywords

  • Cross-cultural analysis
  • Insecurity
  • Institutions
  • Parasite
  • Parochialism
  • Pathogen

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anthropology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)

Cite this

Hruschka, D., Efferson, C., Jiang, T., Falletta-Cowden, A., Sigurdsson, S., McNamara, R., ... Henrich, J. (2014). Impartial Institutions, Pathogen Stress and the Expanding Social Network. Human Nature, 25(4), 567-579. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-014-9217-0

Impartial Institutions, Pathogen Stress and the Expanding Social Network. / Hruschka, Daniel; Efferson, Charles; Jiang, Ting; Falletta-Cowden, Ashlan; Sigurdsson, Sveinn; McNamara, Rita; Sands, Madeline; Munira, Shirajum; Slingerland, Edward; Henrich, Joseph.

In: Human Nature, Vol. 25, No. 4, 06.12.2014, p. 567-579.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hruschka, D, Efferson, C, Jiang, T, Falletta-Cowden, A, Sigurdsson, S, McNamara, R, Sands, M, Munira, S, Slingerland, E & Henrich, J 2014, 'Impartial Institutions, Pathogen Stress and the Expanding Social Network', Human Nature, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 567-579. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-014-9217-0
Hruschka D, Efferson C, Jiang T, Falletta-Cowden A, Sigurdsson S, McNamara R et al. Impartial Institutions, Pathogen Stress and the Expanding Social Network. Human Nature. 2014 Dec 6;25(4):567-579. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-014-9217-0
Hruschka, Daniel ; Efferson, Charles ; Jiang, Ting ; Falletta-Cowden, Ashlan ; Sigurdsson, Sveinn ; McNamara, Rita ; Sands, Madeline ; Munira, Shirajum ; Slingerland, Edward ; Henrich, Joseph. / Impartial Institutions, Pathogen Stress and the Expanding Social Network. In: Human Nature. 2014 ; Vol. 25, No. 4. pp. 567-579.
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