Impacts of landscape structure on surface urban heat islands: A case study of Shanghai, China

Junxiang Li, Conghe Song, Lu Cao, Feige Zhu, Xianlei Meng, Jianguo Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

467 Scopus citations

Abstract

Urbanization is taking place at an unprecedented rate around the world, particularly in China in the past few decades. One of the key impacts of rapid urbanization on the environment is the effect of urban heat island (UHI). Understanding the effects of landscape pattern on UHI is crucial for improving the ecology and sustainability of cities. This study investigated how landscape composition and configuration would affect UHI in the Shanghai metropolitan region of China, based on the analysis of land surface temperature (LST) in relation to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation fraction (Fv), and percent impervious surface area (ISA). Two Landsat ETM+ images acquired on March 13 and July 2, 2001 were used to estimate LST, Fv, and percent ISA. Landscape metrics were calculated from a high spatial resolution (2.5 × 2.5. m) land-cover/land-use map. Our results have showed that, although there are significant variations in LST at a given fraction of vegetation or impervious surface on a per-pixel basis, NDVI, Fv, and percent ISA are all good predictors of LST on the regional scale. There is a strong negative linear relationship between LST and positive NDVI over the region. Similar but stronger negative linear relationship exists between LST and Fv. Urban vegetation could mitigate the surface UHI better in summer than in early spring. A strong positive relationship exists between mean LST and percent ISA. The residential land is the biggest contributor to UHI, followed by industrial land. Although industrial land has the highest LST, it has limited contribution to the overall surface UHI due to its small spatial extend in Shanghai. Among the residential land-uses, areas with low- to-middle-rise buildings and low vegetation cover have much high temperatures than areas with high-rise buildings or areas with high vegetation cover. A strong correlation between the mean LST and landscape metrics indicates that urban landscape configuration also influences the surface UHI. These findings are helpful for understanding urban ecology as well as land use planning to minimize the potential environmental impacts of urbanization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3249-3263
Number of pages15
JournalRemote Sensing of Environment
Volume115
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 15 2011

Keywords

  • Impervious surface
  • Landscape metrics
  • NDVI
  • Shanghai
  • Spectral mixture analysis
  • Urban heat island
  • Vegetation fraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Soil Science
  • Geology
  • Computers in Earth Sciences

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